Chem 231 Ch.2 Acids and Bases

Chem 231 Ch.2 Acids and Bases - is bonded to, the stronger...

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Acids and Bases 2.1 Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases A. Acid: a proton (H+) donor B. Base: a proton (H+) acceptor C. Conjugate Base: the species formed when an acid donates a proton D. Conjugate Acid: the species formed when a base accepts a proton 2.2 Quantitative Measure of Acid and Base Strength A. Strong Acid: an acid which is completely ionized in aqueous solution B. Strong Base: a base which is completely ionized in aqueous solution C. Weak Acid: an acid which is incompletely ionized in aqueous solution D. Weak base: a base which is incompletely ionized in aqueous solution E. Ionization constant (K_a) 1. K_a = [H^+] [A^-] [HA] 2. Used to quantitate the ionization of acids 3. Ionization constants for weak acids have negative exponents F. pK_a = -log K_a 1. the larger the pK_a, the weaker the acid (HA) and the stronger its conjugate base (A^-) 2. The smaller the pK_a, the stronger the acid (HA) and the weaker its conjugate base 3. Most organic acids are weak acids 4. The greater the difference in electronegativity between H and the atom it
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Unformatted text preview: is bonded to, the stronger the acid 5. C-H < N-H < O-H 6. Size of atom carrying - charge (H-Cl, H-Br) Electronegativity values H 2.1 C 2.5 N 3.0 O 3.5 F 4.0 Cl 3.0 Br 2.8 B. Resonance Effect 1. The more stable the A^-, the more acidic the compound. 2. Resonance stabilization of A; by the delocalization of charge. 2.4 Predicting the Direction of Acid-Base Reactions A. The position of equilibrium favors the reaction between the stronger acid with the stronger base B. The position of equilibrium is determined by identifying the stronger acid or stronger base C. pKa values can be used to determine whether the position of equilibrium lies to the right or left 2.5 Lewis Acids and Bases A. Lewis acid: any molecule that can form a new covalent bond by accepting a pair of electrons B. Lewis base : any molecule that can form a new covalent bond by donating a pair of electrons On quizz! ^^^...
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Chem 231 Ch.2 Acids and Bases - is bonded to, the stronger...

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