320652251-Remedial-Law-Albano.pdf - REMEDIAL LAW REVIEWER By Judge Ed Vincent S Albano(Ret Judge Regional Trial Court Branch 50 Pampanga(Ret A.B

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Unformatted text preview: REMEDIAL LAW REVIEWER By Judge Ed Vincent S. Albano (Ret.) Judge, Regional Trial Court, Branch 50, Pampanga (Ret.); A.B. Political Science, Far Eastern University, 1970; Ll.B., Institute of Law, FEU (cum laude); Former Dean, College of Law, University of Perpetual Help System, Laguna; Professor of Law, San Beda College, Arellano University, Adamson University; Professor and Bar Reviewer in Remedial Law, Excellent Bar Review Company, Arellano University, San Beda College; Bar Reviewer in Civil Law, University of the Philippines, SBC, Arellano University; Bar Reviewer in Political Law, Bar & Pre-Week Reviewer in Remedial Law, Arellano University, SBC; Lecturer in Civil Law, Political Law, Remedial Law, Legal Ethics, General Law Practice Institutes, UP; Holder, Juan Ponce Enrile and Pedro Concepcion Professorial Chair in Civil Law, Institute of Law, FEU; Author of the following books: Remedial Law Reviewer; Civil Law Review Guide; Torts and Damages; Civil Law Reviewer; Persons and Family Relations; Pre-Week Reviewer in Legal Ethics; Political Law Reviewer; Member of the Faculty, Philippine Judicial Academy, Supreme Court Co-Authors Ed Vincent A. Albano, Jr. A.B. Political Science, De la Salle University; Ll.B., Far Eastern University; 1999 Law Practitioner; Professor of Law, University of Perpetual Help System, Laguna Myla Khristabelle Albano-Pua AB Legal Management, UST; Ll.B., Far Eastern University; 2002 Professor of Law, University of Perpetual Help Laguna; Securities Counsel III, Securities and Exchange Commission Ed Vincent A. Albano III AB Legal Management, UST; Ll.B., Arellano University, 2005; Professor of Law, University of Perpetual Help Laguna 2010 Edition Published & Distributed by ^ REX Book Store 856 Nicanor Reyes, Sr. St. Tel. Nos. 736-05-67 • 735-13-64 1977 C.M. Recto Avenue Tel. Nos. 735-55-27 • 735-55-34 Manila, Philippines Philippine Copyright^OlO JDBG® rAEBANO ED VINCENTA. ANO,-JK. MYLA KHRISTABEL: ALBANft-PUA ED VINCENT A. ALBANO III ISBN 978-971-23-5668-1 No portion of this book may be copied or reproduced in books, pamphlets, outlines or notes, whether printed, mimeographed, typewritten, copied in different electronic devices or in any other form, for distribution or sale, without the written permission of the authorized representative of the publisher except brief passages in books, articles, reviews, legal papers, and judicial or other official proceedings with proper citation. Any copy of this book without the corresponding number and the authorized signature of the authors on this page either proceeds from an illegitimate source or is in possession of one who has no authority to dispose of the same. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED N? 1582 ISBN 978-971-23-5668-1 05-RV-00062 789712 356681 Printed by REX pmNTilNiq COMpANy, ii\c. TypoqRAphy & CREATIVE lidioqRAphy 84 P. Florentine* St., Quezon City Tel. Nos. 712-41-01 *712-41-08 DEDICATION This book is dedicated to my late parents, Andres Albano and Guillerma Soriano and to my wife, Lilian and children Jonjon, Myla and Vinci (who are now all lawyers and co-authors of this book). Judge Ed Vincent S. Albano To my wife Sheila and to my precious boy Sean Vincent, this work is lovingly dedicated. Atty. Ed Vincent A. Albano Jr. I dedicate this work to my husband Carlo who’s ever tolerable of me, and to our little angel Carl Vincent. Atty. Myla Khristabelle A. Pua To my family and friends who have helped me pray to hurdle the Bar Examinations, I offer my humble contribution to this book. Atty. Ed Vincent A. Albano III ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors owe the completion of this work to the people who unselfishly extended their much needed help in putting this book together. We wish to thank them here, however unembellished it may be. Linda Joya for providing advance sheets of Supreme Court decisions cited in this book. Nova Marie M. Estabillo, my assistant in the College of Law, for industriously proofreading the manuscript of this book. Crystal G. Perez, my secretary in the law office, for tirelessly encoding the manuscript of this book. Anton A. Arriaga, our clerk in the College of Law, for diligently running errands during the revision of this book. The Authors PREFACE This book was prepared with the intention of making the subject easier for the students to understand the same. It is the author’s belief that the reviewee must easily understand the complicated aspects of the law; hence, the simplicity of this work. This book contains important provisions of the law and doctrinal decisions up to 2009, designed to prepare the reviewee for the Bar Examinations. The author wishes to convey his heartfelt thanks to all his friends for encouraging him to write the book. ED VINCENT S. ALBANO vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction .......................................................................................... 1 Jurisdiction .................................................................................. 3 Jurisdiction of Inferior Courts ................................................... 32 Jurisdiction of Regional Trial Courts ........................................ 37 Jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals ......................................... 40 Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court............................................. 41 Jurisdiction of the Family Court ............................................... 43 Jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan ............................................ 47 Barangay Conciliation ........................................................................ 54 Parti CIVIL PROCEDURE Rule — General Provisions ................................................... 73 1 Civil Actions ORDINARY CIVIL ACTIONS Rule 2 — Cause of Action ........................................................ 80 Rule 3 — Parties to Civil Actions .......................................... 105 Rule 4 — Venue of Actions ................................................. 143 Rule 5 — Uniform Procedure in Trial Courts ........................ 165 Rules on Summary Procedure .......................................................... 166 PROCEDURE IN REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 — — — — — — — — Kinds of Pleadings ................................................. Parts of a Pleading .................................................. Manner of Making Allegations in Pleadings.. Effect of Failure to Plead ....................................... Amended and Supplemental Pleadings ................. When to File Responsive Pleadings ....................... Bill of Particulars ................................................... Filing and Service of Pleadings, Judgments and Other Papers ........................... IX 183 199 209 223 231 246 252 256 Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule 14 — 15 — 16 — 17 — 18 — 19 — 20 — 21 — 22 — 23 — 24 — Rule Rule Rule 25 — 26 — 27 — Rule 28 — Rule 29 — Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule 30 — 31 — 32 — 33 — 34 — 35 — 36 — Rule Rule 37 — 38 — Rule 39 — Summons ................................................................ 274 Motions ................................................................... 297 Motion to Dismiss .................................................. 305 Dismissal of Actions .............................................. 327 Pre-trial ................................................................... 338 Intervention ............................................................ 345 Calendar of Cases ................................................... 355 Subpoena ................................................................ 356 Computation of Time ............................................. 361 Depositions Pending Action ................................... 363 Depositions Before Action or Pending Appeal ........................................... 378 Interrogatories to Parties ........................................ 380 Admission by Adverse Party .................................. 382 Production or Inspection of Documents or Things ......................................................... 388 Physical and Mental Examination of Persons ........................................................ 390 Refusal to Comply with Modes of Discovery .................................................... 392 Trial ........................................................................ 394 Consolidation or Severance .................................... 396 Trial by Commissioner ........................................... 397 Demurrer to Evidence ............................................ 402 Judgment on the Pleadings ..................................... 405 Summary Judgments .............................................. 410 Judgments, Final Orders and Entry Thereof ............................................................ 424 New Trial or Reconsideration ................................ 437 Relief from Judgments, Orders, or Other Proceedings ....................................... 455 Execution, Satisfaction and Effects of Judgments ................................................... 465 APPEALS Rule Rule Rule Rule 40 — Appeal from MTCs to the RTCs ............................ 544 41 — Appeal from the RTCs ........................................... 557 42 — Petition for Review from the RTCs to the CAs ........................................................ 575 43 — Appeals from the CTA and Quasi-Judicial Agencies to the CAs ........................................ 584 PROCEDURE IN THE COURT OF APPEALS Rule Rule Rule Rule 44 — 45 — 46 — 47 — Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule 48 — 49 — 50 — 51 — 52 — 53 — 54 — 55 — Ordinary Appealed Cases...................................... Appeal by Certiorari to the SC .............................. Original Cases ....................................................... Annulment of Judgments or Final Orders and Resolutions .................................. Preliminary Conference ........................................ Oral Argument ...................................................... Dismissal of Appeal .............................................. Judgment ............................................................... Motion for Reconsideration .................................. New Trial .............................................................. Internal Business ................................................... Publication of Judgments and Final Resolutions ..................................................... 589 592 603 607 614 616 617 619 625 626 628 629 PROCEDURE IN THE SUPREME COURT Rule 56 — Original and Appealed Cases ................................ 630 PROVISIONAL REMEDIES Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule 57 — 58 — 59 — 60 — 61 — Preliminary Attachment ........................................ Preliminary Injunction........................................... Receivership .......................................................... Replevin ................................................................ Support Pendente Lite ........................................... 633 658 680 687 697 SPECIAL CIVIL ACTIONS Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule 62 — Interpleader ........................................................... 63 — Declaratory Relief and Similar Remedies ......... 64 — Review of Judgments and Final Orders or Resolutions of the Commission on Elections and the Commission on Audit .......................................................... 65 — Certiorari, Prohibition and Mandamus .............. 66 — Quo Warranto ........................................................ 67 — Expropriation ......................................................... 68 — Foreclosure of Real Estate Mortgage .................... 69 — Partition ................................................................. 70 — Forcible Entry and Unlawful Detainer .............. 71 — Contempt ............................................................... XI 702 705 710 713 733 738 744 750 755 785 Part II SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS GENERAL PROVISION Rule 72 — Subject Matter and Applicability of General Rules ............................................. 800 SETTLEMENT OF ESTATE OF DECEASED PERSONS Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule 73 — Venue and Process ................................................ 74 — Summary Settlement of Estates............................. 75 — Production of Will. Allowance of Will Necessary ....................................................... 76 — Allowance or Disallowance of Will ...................... 77 — Allowance of Will Proved Outside of the Philippines and Administration of Estate Thereunder ...................................... 78 — Letters Testamentary and of Administration, When and to Whom Issued ............................ 79 — Opposing Issuance of Letters Testamentary Petition and Contest for Letters of Administration .......................... 80 — Special Administrator............................................ 81 — Bonds of Executors and Administrators........... 82 — Revocation of Administration, Death, Resignation, and Removal of Executors and Administrators ........................ 83 — Inventory and Appraisal Provision for Support of Family ..................................... 84 — General Powers and Duties of Executors and Administrators ......................................... 85 — Accountability and Compensation of Executors and Administrators .................... 86 — Claims Against Estate ........................................... 87 — Actions by and Against Executors and Administrators ......................................... 88 — Payment of the Debts of the Estate ....................... 89 — Sales, Mortgages, and Other Encumbrances of Property of Decedent ................................. 90 — Distribution and Partition of the Estate ............ 91 — Escheats................................................................. xii 801 813 819 821 826 828 836 839 844 847 849 850 852 855 861 868 871 874 876 GENERAL GUARDIANS AND GUARDIANSHIP Rule 92 — Venue ...................................................................... 879 Rule 93 — Appointment of Guardians ...................................... 881 Rule on Custody of Minors .............................................................. 883 Rule 94 — Bonds of Guardians ................................................. 892 Rule 95 — Selling and Encumbering Property of Ward............................................................ 893 Rule 96 — General Powers and Duties of Guardians........... 895 Rule 97 — Termination of Guardianship .................................. 897 Rule 98 — Trustees ................................................................... 899 Rule on Adoption (Supersedes Rules 99 and 100) ...................... 901 Rule 101 — Proceedings for Hospitalization of Insane Persons ............................................. 914 Rule 102 — Habeas Corpus ........................................................ 916 Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus in the Custody of Minors ................................................................ 933 Rule 103 — Change of Name ...................................................... 935 Rule 104 — Voluntary Dissolution of Corporations .............. 940 Rule 105 — Judicial Approval ofVoluntary Recognition of Minor Natural Children .............................................. 942 Rule 106 — Constitution of Family Home .................................. 944 Rule 107 — Absentees ................................................................ 945 Rule 1 0 8 — Cancellation or Correction of Entries in the Civil Registry ........................................ 948 Rule 109 — Appeals in Special Proceedings .............................. 951 Part m CRIMINAL PROCEDURE Rule 110 — Prosecution of Offenses .......................................... 952 Rule 111 — Prosecution of Criminal Action............................... 987 Rule 112 — Preliminary Investigation ...................................... 1007 Rule 113 — Arrest ................................................................... 1027 Rule 114 - Bail ................................. ! ......................................... 1040 Rule 115 — Rights of Accused ................................................. 1063 Presumption of Innocence .................................................. 1064 Right to be Informed ........................................................... 1065 Right to Counsel ................................................................. 1068 Trial in Absentia ................................................................. 1070 Right against Self-Incrimination......................................... 1072 Right to Confrontation ........................................................ 1075 xiii Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Rule Compulsory Process ......................................................... 1077 Speedy, Impartial and Public Trial .................................. 1077 The Speedy Trial Act of 1998 .......................................... 1079 116 — Arraignment and Plea ........................................... 1086 117 — Motion to Quash ................................................... 1098 118 — Pre-Trial ................................................................ 1134 119 - Trial ...................................................................... 1138 120 — Judgment ............................................................... 1156 121 — New Trial or Reconsideration ............................... 1166 122 — Appeal ................................................................... 1171 1 2 3 — Procedure in the Municipal Trial Courts ........... 1178 1 2 4 — Procedure in the Court of Appeals ........................ 1179 125 — Procedure in the Supreme Court ........................... 1181 126 — Search and Seizure ................................................ 1182 127 — Provisional Remedies in Criminal Cases ........... 1190 PartIV RULES ON EVIDENCE Rule 128 — General Provisions .................................................. 1191 Rule 1 2 9 — What Need Not Be Proved .................... ... ............ 1204 Rule 130 — Rules of Admissibility .......................................... 1205 A. Object (Real) Evidence ............................................... 1205 B. Documentary Evidence ............................................... 1205 1. Best Evidence Rule ............................................... 1205 2. Secondary Evidence Rule ..................................... 1206 3. Parol Evidence Rule ............................................. 1209 4. Interpretation of Documents ................................. 1211 C. Testimonial Evidence .................................................. 1213 1. Qualification of Witnesses .................................... 1213 2. Testimonial Privilege ............................................ 1216 3. Admissions and Confessions ................................ 1216 4. Previous Conduct as Evidence .............................. 1226 5. Testimonial Knowledge ........................................ 1226 6. Exceptions to the Hearsay Rule ........................ 1227 7. Opinion Rule ......................................................... 1241 8. Character Evidence ............................................... 1242 Rule 131 — Burden of Proof and Presumptions ....................... 1247 Rule 132 — Presentation of Evidence ...................................... 1262 A. Examination of Witnesses ........................................... 1262 B. Authentication and Proof of Documents .................... 1275 C. Offer and Objection ..................................................... 1278 XIV Rule 133 — Weight and Sufficiency of Evidence....................... 1281 Rule on Examination of a Child Witness ..............
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