Running head: SOVIET INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan Student’s Name Institution
SOVIET INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN 2 Mujahideen during the Afghan War Soviet invasion of Afghanistan to place in late December year 1979 by troops from the USSR. The Soviet Union-mediated in support of the Afghan communist government its conflicts with anticommunist Muslim guerrillas during the Afghan War, which took place between the years 1978-1992 and remained in Afghanistan until late February 1989. On April 1978, Afghanistan's centrist government, led by President Mohammad Daud Khan, was deposed by left-wing military officers led by Nur Mohammad Taraki. Power was after that administered by two Marxist-Leninist civic groups, the People's (Khalq) Party and the Banner (Parcham) Party, which had earlier appeared from a single organization, the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan-and had joined in an uneasy coalition shortly before the revolution. The new regime which had little popular support, forged close ties with the Soviet Union, launched ruthless purges of all domestic opponent and begun extensive social and land reforms that were bitterly disliked by the devoutly Muslim and mostly anticommunist people. Insurgencies arose against the government among both urban and tribal groups, where all of these which are also known as the mujahideen were Islamic in orientation. These uprisings, along with internal fighting and coups within the government between the People’s and Banner factions, motivated the Soviets to invade the country on the night of December 24, 1979, sending in more than 30,000 Soviet troops and toppling the short-lived presidency of People’s leader Hafizullah Amin. The mission of the Soviet operation was to prop up their new but faltering client state, which was being led by Banner leader Babrak Karmal, but he was unable to attain significant popular support. Backed by the United States troops, the mujahideen rebellion grew, spreading to all parts of the nation. The Soviets initially left the
SOVIET INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN 3 destruction of the revolt to the Afghan army, but the latter was beset by mass withdrawals and remained broadly ineffective throughout the war. Later, the Afghan War settled down into a stalemate, with more than a hundred thousand Soviet troops controlling large towns, cities, and major garrisons and the mujahideen moving with relative autonomy throughout the countryside. Soviet troops tried to defeat the insurgency by different tricks and tactics, but the partisans eluded their attacks. The Soviets then attempted to discharge the mujahideen's civilian support by bombing and depopulating the rural areas. These tactics ignited a massive flight from the countryside; by the year 1982 two million Afghans had sought refuge in Pakistan, and another two million had fled to Iran.
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