Chapter_9_-_Race - Sports in Society: Issues &...

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Sports in Society: Chapter 9 Race and Ethnicity: Are They Important in Sports?
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It is widely believed that  sports bring people  together in ways that  transcend racial and ethnic  differences.    But this is  neither automatic nor  customary.
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Race = a population of people who are believed to be naturally or biologically distinct from other populations . Race depends on a classification system through which meanings are given to physical traits
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Ethnicity = a particular cultural heritage that is used to identify a category people. An ethnic population = a category of people regarded as socially distinct because they share a way of life, a collective history, and a sense of themselves as a people.
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An ethnic minority = a socially identified collection of people that suffers disadvantages due to systematic discrimination and has a strong sense of social togetherness based on their shared experiences of past and current discrimination.
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   Racial Ideology in History Racial classification systems were developed as white Europeans explored and colonized the globe and found that there were physical differences between people These systems were used to justify colonization, conversion, and even slavery and genocide According to these systems, white skin was the standard, and dark skin was associated with intellectual inferiority and slowed development
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   Racial Ideology  in the United States A person’s humanity and moral worth came to be associated with skin color because: 1. Whites needed justification for political expansion 2. Whites sought to control blacks after the abolition of slavery 3. Scientists claimed to have proved the natural inferiority of “colored” people and the natural superiority of white Europeans.
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The trouble with  race and racial ideology Research shows that external traits are not linked with patterns of internal differences Race is a social construction that is based on social definitions and the meanings that people give to physical traits Racial classification systems vary by culture and over time, and they are based on arbitrary distinctions related to continuous physical traits (see diagram)
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Snow white Midnight black Continuous Traits = skin color, height, brain size, nose width, leg length, leg length ratio, # of fast twitch muscle fibers, etc. Discrete Traits = blood type, sickle cell trait, etc . Racial category lines can be drawn anywhere and everywhere on this continuum! We could draw 2 or 2000 lines. Our decisions are social decisions, not decisions based on biology. Some people draw many; others draw few; some reject lines. Racial Categories: Drawing Color Lines in Society Skin color continuum
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“Race” in the United States “Race” is a primitive but powerful classification system that has been used around the world “Race” is based on a two-category classification system premised on the rule of hypo-descent or the “one-drop rule”
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2008 for the course KIN 445 taught by Professor Jdandchristine during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Chapter_9_-_Race - Sports in Society: Issues &...

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