notes - Energy Flow Structure Food chain or Food Webs...

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Energy Flow Structure Food chain or Food Webs Plants = stored energy (glucose) Amino Acids make up proteins Keystone Specieis Feeding levels or Trophic structure Boundaries Ecosystems may be nested Ecosystems recycle nutrients Carbon Cycle o Sources of Carbon Living Things C02 = photosynthesis Minerals, Carbonates limestone, Hokie Stone Fossil Fuels o Addition to the atmosphere Respiration Industrial Pollution, from fossil fuels Erosion of minerals Nitrogen Cycle o 78% of atmosphere is Nitrogen Inert gas Does not combine readily in chemical reactions Doesn’t burn
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Helps protect environment from being flammable o Importance to Living things Component of proteins and other biological molecules Aids in grow of plants o Addition to the atmosphere Nitrogen Fixation from Bacteria Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into organic nitrogen compounds which are then available to green plants; a process that can be carried out only by certain strains of soil bacteria (eg Rhizobium, Clostridium and Azotobacter). Legumes o Beans o peas o peanuts o soybeans N2 (nitrogen gas inert) -> NH3 -> NO2 -> NO3 (nitrate) (fertilizer) o Incorporated into amino acids and protein Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen <- basic chemicals for life Phosphorus Cycle o Importance to living Things Calcium Phosphate – Bones and Teeth ATP, and all phosphate molecules Minerals (phosphates) Limiting to plants, increases blooms and fruits o Addition to environment Erosion from minerals
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Uplifting from ponds and lakes Run off from fertilizers Industrial pollution from detergents o Problems High concentrations cause algal blooms in water ways Sources of Water in the Atmosphere o Evaporation conversion to water vapor from bodies of water, oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams o Transpiration Conversion of water vapor from the evaporation of water from plans o 77% percent of rainfall we never see o 23% is the rain we get Biomes o Terrestrial and aquatic communities which have characteristic flora and fauna under a given set of climatic conditions. Occupy large climatic regions of the earth. Can be differentiated from space. o Characteristics Moisture Temperature Solar Radiation (sun light received) Stability over a long period of time o Hopkins Bioclimatic Law Every increase of 1,000ft of elevation is equivalent of ecosystems 200 miles north Blacksburg 2,200 ft Salt pond mnt – mountain lake
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o 4,200 ft o 2,000 ft = 400 miles N of Blacksburg o Examples Tropical rain forest Tropical deciduous forest Desert Savanna and tropic shrub forest Chaparral Temperate deciduous forest Temperate rain forest Grassland Coniferous forest Tundra and alpine vegetation Ice o Tundra Approx 20% of the earth’s surface Average annual temperature 41 deg Cold air temperatures with low moisture
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notes - Energy Flow Structure Food chain or Food Webs...

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