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MumfordJacqueline Mumford, UF ID: 6665-2786Professor StaffordPOS 360610 February 2017Except as Punishment of CrimeThe Constitution of the United States, under the provisions of the ThirteenthAmendment, abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for acrime (amend. XIII, sec. I). Many Americans are unware of the latter half of this section,led to believe that the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery and that is it. Americanhistory in this country is not taught in a way that explains the flaws and loopholes in thesystem created by former lawmakers and leaders with hate ingrained into their corevalues. Rather, the history of this country is relayed in a one-sided manner, onlyshowcasing what the government is proud of, and masking the racial inequality that stillplagues this nation. The documentary13th,directed by Ana DuVernay, analyzes the risingrate of incarceration and the alarming number of African Americans victimized by post-Civil War legislation and its backlash. The documentary also puts an emphasis on therights, or lack thereof, of the accused in the United States.The backlash African Americans faced after the ratification of the ThirteenthAmendment was unbeknown to me before my viewing of13th.After the Civil War,African Americans were arrested in massive amounts as a way for the white males of thecountry to get around the freeing of slaves and acceptance, by the Constitution, of1
MumfordAfrican Americans as citizens and human beings. African Americans during this timeperiod were arrested for the most minor of offenses, which in turn allowed them to beexploited and dehumanized once again, but this time under the term “inmate labor,”