Steve Hernandez 204 - 485 - 86 Discussion 1H Evolutionary Medicine 186: Precocious Puberty Term Paper Background Introduction: Epidemiology, Prevalence, IncidencePrecocious puberty is known as an onset of pubertal development in a child that beginsbefore the age of 8 in girls and before the age of 9 in boys. Usually, children who suffer fromprecocious puberty start puberty 2 to 2.5 standard deviations earlier than population norms.Precocious puberty has a prevalence rate of about two percent, or two in every one hundredchildren. Population studies have studied different yields and markers of precocious puberty andhave found this form of puberty to have different rates depending on the population studied. In astudy done in the United States, the development of pubic hair and breasts at around the age ofeight was found in 48% of African-American girls while the development was found 15% ofwhite girls. (Harrington, 2016) Precocious puberty can, once the pathology is studied, be divided into three classifications. The first classification is known as Central Precocious Puberty (CPP, and also known as gonadotropin-dependent). In CPP, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis undergoes early maturation, and some signs of this form of precocious puberty, in girls, is the maturation of breasts and pubic hair, and in boys, the enlargement of the penis along with pubic hair growth have been observed.The characteristics of normal puberty in children are present, except that puberty occurs at an earlier age. (Harrington, 2016)
The second classification of precocious puberty is Peripheral precocity (also known as peripheral precocious puberty or gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty). This form of precocity is influenced by an excessive release of sex hormones (which includes either estrogen or androgens) from adrenal glands or also from the gonads, production of gonadotropin from a germ cell tumor and a source of sex steroids. This form of precocity is used instead of using puberty because the exact form of puberty makes use of the activation of the hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal system, as seen similarly in CPP. (Harrington, 2016) The third classification of precocious puberty is known as benign or non - progressivepuberty variants. Some of the common factors expressed in benign puberty variants include theisolation of the development of the breasts in girls (which is also referred to as ‘prematurethelarche’), or androgen-mediated sexyal characterstics, like acne, apocrine odor, and pubic hairin both guys and girls that is a result of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal system. In children,these disorders can be different variants of what is thought to be normal puberty. (Harrington,2016) Mechanism Central precocious puberty, which is constantly referenced as gonadotropin - pituitary -dependent precocious puberty in the literature, has various causes. One cause is connected to thehypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal axis and its early maturation. Even though the onset of centralprecocious puberty is early, the signs, timing and patterns of puberty events is usually normal.
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