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Chapter 5 Diseases_Organisms_45_Slides_GrayScale_Fall_08_2

Chapter 5 Diseases_Organisms_45_Slides_GrayScale_Fall_08_2 ...

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HP 320 Chapter 5 Disease and Disease-Producing Organisms Disease Any disruption in the structure and/or function of a part, organ or system in the human body Causes may be known or unknown Symptoms may be objective or subjective Severity may be variable Classification of Diseases By Organ or organ system – e.g. heart disease, kidney disease, respiratory infection Causative agent – biological, chemical , and physical agents Type: acute vs. chronic vs. sub-acute diseases By Type of Disease Acute Diseases : Rapid onset, short duration, relatively severe Communicable common cold, pneumonia, measles, typhoid fever Noncommunicable appendicitis, poisoning, fire, gunshots Subacute Diseases : Between acute & chronic Neither severe nor very long-lasting Chronic Diseases: Less sever but continuous or recurring for long periods Communicable AIDS, TB, syphilis Noncommunicable diabetes, coronary heart disease, arthritis, cirrhosis Causative Agents of Disease Biological Agents Chemical Agents Physical Agents -Viruses (Herpes, AIDS) -Pesticides -Heat -Bacteria (Salomnellosis ) -Food additives -UV Light -Fungi (Athlete s foot) -Drugs -Radiation -Protozoa (Malaria) -Industrial chemicals -Noise vibration -Nematodes (worms) (Ascaris, elephantiasis) -Air pollutants -Cigarette smoke -Car accidents Categories of Disease Infectious diseases: e.g. colds, AIDS, TB Degenerative diseases: e.g. osteoporosis, arthritis Nutritional disorders: e.g. rickets, nutritional anemias Metabolic disorders: e.g. diabetes Immune disorders: e.g. allergies autoimmune disorders: e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis (MS) Psychiatric/mental disorders Neoplasms/cancers
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Predisposing Causes/Risk Factors Modifiable Risky behaviors Living conditions (e.g. crowded housing, poor sanitation) Emotional disturbance (e.g. anxiety & stress) Physical & chemical damage (e.g. exposure to lead, asbestos, pesticides, ionizing radiation….etc.) Nonmodifiable Age; gender; heredity; pre-existing illness Modifiable Risk Factors 1/3 of world's cancers are due to 9 modifiable risk factors 1. Tobacco use (accounts for 21% of all cancer) 2. Alcohol consumption 3. Inadequate intake of fruits & vegetables 4. Overweight & obesity 5. Physical inactivity 6. Unsafe sexual behavior 7. Urban air pollution 8. Indoor smoke from household use of coal 9. Contaminated injection needles Source: Ezzati et al. 2005 Disease Terminology • Etiology : cause of a disease • Idiopathic : a disease of unknown etiology • Prognosis : prediction of probable outcome of disease • Therapy : course of treatment • Nosocomial : hospital acquired • Iatrogenic : due to adverse effects of treatment Diagnostic Terms • Diagnosis : a conclusion as to the nature of the illness • Prognosis : a prediction of the probable outcome of a disease • Symptoms : subjective manifestations of a disease • Signs : objective manifestations of a disease • Syndrome : a characteristic group of signs & symptoms accompanying a specific disease e.g. Down’s syndrome,
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