Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire - Ottoman Empire I. Strengths in...

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Ottoman Empire I. Strengths in Organization a. 1560-1699 i. First 10 Sultans are strong (through 1566) 1. Executions of brothers (no rival factions) ii. Slave system (Ghulam) for upper administration 1. Deushirme – “boy tax” European a. 1 boy for every 40 households b. Ages 8-18, multiple brothers, etc. 2. Upper Administration – Chikma 10% 3. Infantry – Janessaries 90% a. Around 40,000 troops iii. Aristocracy (Timar) Systems 1. Land in return for military service (Calvalry) iv. Legal (Millet) System 1. Religious minorities 2. Work under own legal systems for different religious groups a. Marriage, inheritance, etc. b. Outer community conflicts II. Rising Problems a. 17 th Century (1600-1800) i. Change in succession 1. Mehmet III (1595-1603 a. Oldest son inherits b. Stop killing of the brothers ii. Inflation – money 1. Central bureaucracy
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a. Chikma removed b. Sell offices 2. Military a. Janessaries system ceased in 1638 i. Sell offices 1. Assumed free housing, food, pay no taxes b. Timar privatized i. Sold land to timar 1. Don’t pay taxes ii. Don’t respond to military requirements
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This document was uploaded on 10/07/2008.

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Ottoman Empire - Ottoman Empire I. Strengths in...

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