4 levels of Political Org

4 levels of Political Org - (some around 100,000 in Western...

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Leaders Formality Decisions Prevalence Size Subsistence groups Other Band Skills and knowledge Extremely informal (Oral Tradition) Leaders temporary; lack formal vote; community consensus Least prevalent (Pg. 314) Less than 30 Foragers Extremely egalitarian Tribe Representatives from families or smaller groups in society to form councils (chiefs) More formal/complex than bands Leaders temporary; village headsmen with relatively low authority May be more prevalent than bands (Pg. 318) >30 to low thousands Horticultural or pastoralists Somewhat egalitarian, men and women may have different roles Chiefdom Seniority in kin groups and/or success at redistributing wealth/surplus “chiefs” Formal Full-time leaders who may also serve as arbitrator or judge; conflict around land, property, water (access to) If view dichotomized, more than bands (Pg. 323) 100s to several thousands
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Unformatted text preview: (some around 100,000 in Western SA) Horticultural and agricultural (including some intensive) Stratified rudimentary taxation systems; powerful in warfare due to size State Hereditary or elite class; elected, born into, or appointed; various leaders at different levels; “heads of state”— presidents, prime ministers, kings, emperors Highly organized; written law, armed forces, courts, and police Land, water, interpersonal wrongs, other resources, warfare; may include election OR by head of state If view dichotomized more than bands Groups, towns, cities with centralized government & urban centers/can span vast geographical regions (largest groups) Some intensive agriculture; industrial/post industrial Hierarchical; often grow out of chiefdoms, kingdoms and monarchies in this category as well...
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This document was uploaded on 10/07/2008.

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