History 252 Midterm Study Guide

History 252 Midterm Study Guide - Lincolns 10 Percent Plan...

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Lincoln’s 10 Percent Plan – state could be reintegrated into the Union if 10 percent of the voters in the presidential election of 1860 took an oath of allegiance to the United States, abolish slavery Wade-Davis Bill - half the white adult males had to take an oath of allegiance before drafting a new state constitution Radical Republicans - had animosity towards Johnson and thought him not worthy of the presidency, desired to safeguard the interests of freed slaves, thought it was the duty of congress and not the president to set the terms under which states would regain their rights in the Union, southern states could readmit only after slavery had ended, black rights protected Failure of Andrew Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction - states merely repealed ordinances of secession, rejected the 13 th amendment or refused the Confederate debt 13 th amendment - the abolishment of slavery 14 th amendment - all persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens, 15 th amendment - the right to vote for blacks Congressional Reconstruction - brought the 10 unreconstructed states under leadership of military commanders, blacks could vote, not former Confederates that were previously barred from voting, Andrew Johnson’s Impeachment - tried to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, which went against the Tenure of Office Act Tenure of Office Act - forbade Johnson to remove any member of the cabinet without the Senate’s consent Scalawags - white southerners who allied with the Republican Party(northerners), thought the ideals of Republicans reconstruction to be the best Carpetbaggers - white republicans that came from the north to loot and plunder the defeated south, to make money off of the south The Freedmen’s Bureau - protected freed people’s economic rights, gave them care and education Ulysses S. Grant - CORRUPTION, was loyal to friends, they were corrupt, Black Friday, The Tweed Ring (Tammany Hall), The “Salary Grab” (Congress increased salaries by 50%), the Whiskey Ring (Grant’s personal secretary defrauded the government from tax revenues on the sale of whiskey), The Belknap Scandal (accepted bribes for granting the rights to sell supplies to the Indian tribes) The Disputed Election of 1876 - Rutherford B. Hayes versus Samuel Tilden, there was a problem in the Electoral College because both parties claimed SC, FL, and LA, Tilden won popular vote Compromise of 1877 - gave the Presidency to Hayes, union troops were to be pulled out of the south, marked the end of reconstruction Tenancy - new freedpeople or poor white southerners had no money to acquire land, rented land in return for a portion of their crops, usually cotton Sharecropping and crop liens - a form of tenancy, worked for a portion of the crop produced, more often than not left the farmer in perpetual debt Debt peonage - reduced many farmers to virtual slavery by shackling them to debt; year after year they rented land and borrowed against their harvests, robbed small farmers of their freedom Jim Crow laws - laws to separate races, led to Plessy v. Ferguson
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Plessy v. Ferguson
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