Biochem chapter 11 part 2

Biochem chapter 11 part 2 - Part II Chapter Seven -Concepts...

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Chapter Seven Part II
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Chapter Seven Chapter 11 DNA Replication and Transcription: Biosynthesis of DNA and RNA Dr. J Davis - Concepts in Biochemistry - 3rd Edition
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Chapter Seven Chapter 11 Homework #4-6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 18, 21, 24, 25, and 35
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Chapter Seven RNA Synthesis
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5 11.4 Synthesis of RNA DNA [in nucleus] contains the coding (A, G, C and T) for thousands of proteins required by the cell. - DNA’s language must be translated into the language of protein, however. RNA is the molecule that carries the genetic information from DNA to the Protein factories [Ribosomes]. - Recall: RNA is of course complementary to DNA - It is synthesized either in the cytoplasm (prokaryotes) or the nucleus (eukaryotes) prior to transport out to the cytosol. Some Common Terms Defining the Flow of Information from DNA to RNA [ TRANSCRIPTION ] are listed below.
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6 The strand of duplex DNA that is used for RNA Synthesis aka the TEMPLATE [Sense] strand . - It is read in the 3’ to 5’ direction [Figure 11.21].
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7 11.4 Synthesis of RNA The RNA product that is formed (aka RNA Transcript) is synthesized in the 5’ to 3’ direction . The other DNA strand is aka the Coding Stand which has the same sequence as the RNA transcript [except U exists where T would be located]. By convention, we number the Gene or the RNA transcript from the 1st base where transcription starts. - The 1st base = +1, +2, +3 so forth (downstream). - The base to the left of base +1 is labeled -1 (upstream) - Note: There is no base number = 0.
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8 11.4 Synthesis of RNA An brief Preview / overview of transcription in E. coli (prokaryotic example) is show in the next few slides (below). A More detailed description follows plus a comparison with the process observed in eukaryotes. - There exist 2 types of transcription processes that can be defined: (1) DNA- directed RNA synthesis, and (2) RNA-directed RNA synthesis [in RNA viruses].
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9 Quick Overview of the Transcription Process Quick Overview of the Transcription Process
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10 11.4 Synthesis of RNA Transcription occurs in three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. Transcription begins when RNA polymerase ( DNA- directed RNA Polymerase ) recognizes a control segment (gene initiation site) on DNA. Overview: (1) RNA Polymerase finds and binds to gene initiation sites (located upstream from the start of transcription) on the DNA Template; ( 2) A short segment of DNA double helix is unwound; and ( 3) RNA Polymerase brings in the appropriate NTPs and links them to the growing ribonucleotide by phospho- diester bond, and
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11 11.4 Synthesis of RNA Overview: (4) Elongation continues until an entire gene is transcribed. (5)
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Biochem chapter 11 part 2 - Part II Chapter Seven -Concepts...

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