CHAPTER 5

CHAPTER 5 - 5 An Overview of Organic Reactions Based on...

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Unformatted text preview: 5. An Overview of Organic Reactions Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry , 7 th edition 2 Why this chapter? ¡ To understand organic and/or biochemistry, it is necessary to know:- What occurs- Why and how chemical reactions take place We will see how a reaction can be described 3 5.1 Kinds of Organic Reactions ¡ In general, we look at what occurs and try to learn how it happens ¡ Common patterns describe the changes ¡ Addition reactions – two molecules add together ¡ Elimination reactions – one molecule splits into two 4 ¡ Substitution reactions – parts from two molecules exchange 5 ¡ Rearrangement reactions – a molecule undergoes changes in the way its atoms are connected Work Problem 5.1 here 6 5.2 How Organic Reactions Occur: Mechanisms ¡ In a clock the hands move but the mechanism behind the face is what causes the movement ¡ In an organic reaction, we see the transformation that has occurred. The mechanism describes the bonding changes that occurred to produce the transformation. A mechanism describes in detail exactly the order of bond-making and bond- breaking in a given transformation. 7 Types Bonding Changes in Reaction Mechanisms ¡ Bond formation or breakage can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical ¡ Symmetrical- radical reactions ¡ Unsymmetrical- polar reactions 8 Indicating Steps in Mechanisms ¡ Curved arrows indicate breaking and forming of bonds ¡ Arrowheads with a “half” head (“fish-hook”) indicate homolytic and homogenic steps (called ‘radical processes’) ¡ Arrowheads with a complete head indicate heterolytic and heterogenic steps (called ‘polar processes’) Indicates the movement of two electrons Indicates the movement of one electron 9 5.3 Radical Reactions ¡ Not as common as polar reactions ¡ Radicals ¡ highly reactive because they contain an atom with an odd number of electrons (usually seven). ¡ They react to complete electron octet of valence shell 10 Types of Radical Reactions ¡ A radical can abstract an atom and one bonding electron from another reactant, leaving a new radical. This is radical substitution . 11 Types of Radical Reactions...
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CHAPTER 5 - 5 An Overview of Organic Reactions Based on...

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