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page3 - 1 Throughput number of bits received per second...

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1) Throughput – number of bits received per second. Instantaneous throughput is the current number of bits received by router per second. 2) Bottleneck – average throughput is dependent on the slowest transmission rate of a link in the network. The bottleneck link transmission rate is equal to throughput. a) For two hosts per link, bottleneck is min of each link rate. b) For multiple hosts connected to core by high speed link, the link rate must be divided among all hosts. If this rate is min of access network links then new bottleneck is the high speed link. Protocol Layer Architecture 1) Advantage – creates structure and organization 2) Disadvantage – modularity creates redundancy in layers 3) Application Layer – packet is called a message. Applications and application protocol resides in this layer. Examples are HTTP, SMTP, DNS. 4) Transport Layer – packet is called a segment. Transports application messages to application endpoints. Examples are TCP, and UDP a) TCP –
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