lesson 20

lesson 20 - U.S Dietary Guidelines the Grain Group Grains...

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Grains are important source of: Dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) B vitamins (folate, niacin, riboflavin) Minerals (iron) Naturally low in fat and cholesterol-free, and supply protein and energy Low in essential amino acid lysine and lack vitamin B 12 Complementary proteins Two incomplete proteins who together provide enough of all of the essential amino acids Ex: grains & legumes; grains low in lysine, legumes low in methionine both have sufficient amounts of opposite What counts as a whole grain? Whole grain contains all 3 parts of the grain: germ, endosperm, bran Whole grain and parts must be kept together during processing Ex: whole wheat flour, oatmeal, brown rice, popcorn Structure of cereal grains Germ is at base of the grain and contains plant embryo or seed (rich in B vitamins, vitamin E and oils) Endosperm is composed primarily of starch granules that are food for the seed and makes up the bulk of the grain Bran is the fiber-rich outer layer which serves to protect (high in B vitamins, minerals and fiber) Processing of grain into flour Milling is process of separating endosperm form bran and germ and grinding endosperm into flour-sized particles Flour is chemically treated for bleaching and aging
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Bleaching removes natural carotenoids which give flour yellow color Aging improves the baking qualities What makes popcorn pop? water Endosperm has small amount of water, which expands to steam when heated to abt 450 deg F Pressure forces the bran to rupture, the starch in the endosperm expands and steam is released Small amount of protein in the endosperm stabilizes the gelatinized starch Steps in the manufacture of beer: malting and mashing At malting plant , grains of barley are allowed to sprout. As embryo begins to germinate, amylase begins breakdown of long starch molecules to maltose to feed the plant embryo Once sufficient starch is broken down grains are heated up to stop further breakdown result is ‘malted barley’, the primary ingredient of beer At brew house, malted barley grains combined with water and heated in mashing Mash is heated to 152 deg F, which activates glucoamylase enzyme that breaks down maltose into fermentable
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lesson 20 - U.S Dietary Guidelines the Grain Group Grains...

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