lesson 8

lesson 8 - A Patchwork of Regulatory Bodies USDA Regulates...

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A Patchwork of Regulatory Bodies USDA: Regulates the safety and wholesomeness of meats, poultry, and processed eggs . Also regulate the use and regulation of drugs in animal testing. FDA: regulates fruits, vegetables, seafood, milk and dairy products. EPA: Regulates pesticides used in growing crops and sanitizing chemicals used in cleaning food processing plants. Important Terms Mutagen: chemical capable of changing the genetic material (DNA) Carcinogen: agent capable of inducing cancer Teratogen :substance capable of inducing birth defects GRAS :a food additive that is ‘ generally recognized as safe’ A treatise on Adulteration of food and culinary poisons- Fredrick Accum, 1820 - Beer and milk diluted with water -Addition of alum to bread to bleach the dough white (white firm bread= nobility) -Contamination of Gloucester cheese with red lead (looks like cheddar, but was poisonous) -Addition of cooper to green pickles Early food laws: 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act - Prohibited the addition of any ingrediant to a food that would substitute for the food, conceal damage, pose a health hazard, or constitute a filthy or decomposed substance. -The weight or measure of a food had to be accurate. - The food or drug label could not be false or misleading. - The presence and amount of 11 dangerous ingredients, including alcohol, heroin, and cocaine had to be listed. Food Additives Amendment and Delaney Clause - The food additive amendment (1958) along with the color additives amendement (1960), gave the FDA much tighter control over the growing list of chemicals entering the food supply. -Delaney Clause- prohbited the addition of any chemical (additive) to food that had been found to induce cancer in man or animals at any level. Two groups of additives were exempted. (GRAS substances and ‘prior sanctioned substanced’ Principles that guide additive testing - lab
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animals are good models for assessing toxicity of a substance in humans, especially when there are a variety of tests and multiple animal species used. -Species differences are kept in mind when more then one type of test animal is used and when using animal test results to predict safety for humans. - Consumption patterns are considered. Preliminary/Short-term Feeding Studies - Preliminary studies involve short-term feeding studies in small groups of animals. The focus is to determine the dose range(s) to be tested in longer-term studies and to establish patterns of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of the chemical. To determine if there are any target organs. Acute Oral Toxicity Studies - Acute Oral Toxicity studies are usually conducted on rodent species (rats or mice). The prupose is to determine the adverse effects from acute (short term) exposure to the chemical, often at high doses. This study will establish the LD50 for the chemical. The LD50 is the amount of the chemical that is lethal dose for 50% of the test population. Subacute Oral Toxicity Studies
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lesson 8 - A Patchwork of Regulatory Bodies USDA Regulates...

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