exam 1 studyguide

exam 1 studyguide - Lesson 1 18/02/2008 14:14:00- Put the...

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Unformatted text preview: Lesson 1 18/02/2008 14:14:00- Put the exam dates on your calendar. • Feb 20 • March 12 • April 16 • Final: May 11 ←-Describe a nutrient, essential nutrient and deficiency (related to food) • nutrient: any substance in food that the body can use to obtain energy, synthesize tissues or regulate functions • essential nutrient: fall into 6 categories (water, carb, lipid [fats/oils], proteins, vitamins, and minerals) • deficiency: sign of a lack of nutrient in the diet (scurvy, anemia, goiter) ←- List the 3 major functions of dietary nutrients and associate dietary nutrients with each function • contribute to cell and body structure (lipids, protein, water, minerals) • provide energy (carb, lipid , protein) • regulate body processes (lipids, protein, water, vitamins, minerals) ←-Distinguish organic nutrients from inorganic nutrients • organic: contain carbon (carbs, lipids, protein, vitamins) • inorganic: no carbon (minerals, water)-Define a calorie; and describe a food calorie • calorie: amount of energy needed to raise a kg of water 1 degree Celsius • food calorie is chemical energy in the form of kilocalorie converted to mechanical energy in movement, electrical in nerve impulses, or heat in regulation of body temperature ←-Describe how calories are measured and which food components provide calories (and how much) • calories are measured using a bomb calorimeter • carbs: 4 kcal/gram • protein: 4 kcal/gram • fat: 9 kcal/gram • alcohol: 7 kcal/gram ←-Calculate the amount of calories in a given food • ex. Big mac has 45 grams carb, 25 grams of protein, 29 grams of fat o 45 x 4 cal=180 calories o 25 x 4 cal= 100 calories o 29 x 9 cal= 261 calories o total = 541 calories ←-Calculate % of calories from fat • ex. Calories = 825; 38 grams of fat o 38 x 9= 342 calories from fat o 342/825= .41 (41%) • ex. 16 grams of fat and 272 calories o 16 x 9= 144 calories o 144/272=.53 (53%) ←-Define digestion and absorption • digestion: chemical/physical breakdown of food into smaller units • absorption: movement of digested nutrients from GI tract into bloodstream ←-Describe the features of the GI tract, and explain the phases of digestion and absorption • GI tract: body’s organ which digests food and absorbs nutrients (mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum) o Ingestion: receipt/softening of food in the mouth o Transport of ingested food o Secretion of digestive enzymes, acid, mucus, bile o Absorption of end products of digestion o Movement of undigested material o Elimination of digestive waste products •...
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exam 1 studyguide - Lesson 1 18/02/2008 14:14:00- Put the...

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