exam 4 study guide

exam 4 study guide - 1of13 Ch. 50- Biogeography Biome-...

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1 of 13 Ch. 50- Biogeography Biome- major types of ecological associations that occupy broad regions of land or water Terrestrial Biomes: Temperature and Precipitation primarily influence the distribution of terrestrial biomes General Features o Vertical Stratification- amount of light available determines the type the vegetation at the that level- Competition for light Ex: Tropical Forests- forest floor shrub understory canopy emergent layer o Boundaries- B/W biomes often blurry Ecotone- intergradation of terrestrial biomes o Disturbances- create patchiness Ex: Floods, hurricanes, fires The Eight Terrestrial Biomes 1. Tropical Forests (Warm air temperatures) Tropical RAIN forests- constant rain 200-400 cm/year Tropical DRY forests- seasonal rain 150-200 cm/year Vertical Stratification Highest Animal diversity of any terrestrial biome! 2. Deserts- Band of hot desert at 30°N and 30°S latitudes Also occur at other latitudes in interior of continents Precipitation is <30 cm/year Plants store water Animals have adaptations to limited water 3. Savannas- Warm air temps. Equatorial and sub-equatorial regions Precipitation 30-50 cm/year Scattered trees and grasses; fire adapted High Diversity of Herbivorous mammals 4. Charparral- Mediterranean Climate Mid latitude, coastal regions of several continents Precipitation is 30-50 cm/year
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2 of 13 Rainy winters/ dry summers 5. Temperate Grasslands On several continents- veldt, pampas, steppes, prairies Precipitation is 30-100 cm/year Dry winters/wet summers Native large grazers- bison, wild horses 6. Coniferous forests Precipitation is 30-70 cm/year Pine, Spruce, Fir, Hemlock, etc. Moose, Brown Bears, Siberian Tigers 7. Temperate Broadleaf Forests Mid Latitudes Precipitation is 70-200 cm/year no distinct seasonality Cold Winters/ Hot Humid Summers Vertical Stratification Deciduous trees Many animals hibernate, birds migrate Arctic Tundra- high LATITUDES Precipitation- 20-60 cm/year Alpine Tundra- high ALTITUDES Precipitation- may exceed 100 cm/ year Winter long/cold short growing season Mostly herbaceous vegetation- lichens, mosses, grasses, forbs, dwarf shrubs Large grazers, nesting sites for migratory birds Chapter 51—Behavioral ecology • What is behavior? Behavior is part of animals phenotype (learning counts as a behavior) • What are proximate and ultimate questions in behavioral ecology? Proximate- How questions- what is the immediate stimulus and mechanism for behavior Ultimate- Why Questions- evolutionary significance of behavior What is an example of proximate question
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3 of 13 How does day length influence breeding? What is an example of an ultimate question?
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exam 4 study guide - 1of13 Ch. 50- Biogeography Biome-...

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