Study Guide Exam 1

Study Guide Exam 1 - Criminology Criminology is the...

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Criminology Criminology : is the scientific study of the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior. - It is an interdisciplinary science: Criminal justice, sociology, psychology, biology, economics, and political science. Types of Crime - Violent crime - Theft crime - Sexual crimes - Public order crime - Organized crime - White-collar crime - Drug crimes Crime: an act that violates the criminal law and is punishable by the state. Criminal laws are codified norms: felony vs. misdemeanor. Limited offending: most people wont do serious crimes . Versatility vs. Specialization. Most offenders are not versatile. Harm doing vs. Deviance (rule-breaking) Why People Commit Crime - Disciplinary Perspectives Psychological view : Emphasizes crime as a function of individual differences. Biological view: Emphasizes biochemical, genetic, and neurological factors. Sociological view: Emphasizes social forces (poverty, socialization) - Multiple causes - Situational factors vs. Individual differences. . EXAM *** Individual differences: affected by biological and socialization Situational factors : Affected by social and physical structure, etc. Opportunity is important. THEORIES - Rational Choice – Commit crime if rewards outweigh costs. - Control Theories (Why not?) – Assumes there is a reward, asks why people don’t commit crimes. Focus on costs, not rewards. Formal controls: Legal system. Don’t want jail. Informal controls: Outside legal. Friends, family, peers. Social disorganized neighborhoods Self control Criminal opportunities: Bros theory. People commit crime when they have the opportunity. - Strain Theory – Commit when feel bad, strained. - Blocked Legitimate Opportunities – When don’t have the legitimate opportunity to succeed, start to commit crimes to achieve. - Biological Explanations – Ex: testosterone
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- Socialization Theories Social learning (imitation & reward/punishment) – Do things because you saw others do it. Differential association (bad company) Labeling (self-fulfilling prophecy) – Label someone a criminal, so they become a criminal. Subcultures – Develop in groups. People develop attitudes conducive to crime. Arguments to make offenders look good: Strain (not my fault), Biological, Labeling (racial profiling), Differential association. Arguments to make offenders look bad: Rational choice, self control. Left and Right Views of Crime - Consensus View of Crime Law reflects a consensus about what should be illegal. Crime is detrimental to society. Pluralism – punish people who don’t agree Law is arbitrary (bad/crime) - Conflict View of Crime Definition of crime and application of law is controlled by those with wealth and power, to protect their interests. Discrimination.
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Study Guide Exam 1 - Criminology Criminology is the...

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