HD 261 Study Guide #3 - Prelim # 3 Study Guide Sex...

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Prelim # 3 Study Guide Gender Roles: values, motives, or behaviors assigned to one sex or the other Expressive Role : kind, nurturing, cooperative, sensitive (us – females) Instrumental Role : dominant, independent, assertive, competitive (us – males) Androgynous Role : blend of both [30% in US] Healthier, higher self-esteem and more likeable. Sex differences in socialization of children in 110 non-industrialized societies o Boys: achievement and self reliant (0 girls); Girls: nurturance (0 boys), obedience, responsibility o Review of 1500 studies looking at traditional gender stereotypes & reality: Four small differences 1. Girls – greater verbal ability earlier language acquisition small advantage in reading comprehension but not that big 2. Boys – greater visual/special ability mental rotation fairly large 3. Boys – small mathematical ability advantage more problem solving strategies 4. Boys – more aggressive* o Additional Sex Differences Boys- more physically active – rough and tumble play Boys – more physically vulnerable [diseases, emotional disorders, reading disabilities, etc] Girls – more emotional expressive Girls – more compliant Boys – higher global self-esteem [gender gap] o Sex differences are NOT large; e.g gender: 5% variation in aggression o o Not biologically inevitable; particularistic o Strong cultural and social influences Gender Role Stereotypes cognitive schemes: used to interpret behavior of males and females o mental representation to interpret and assess behaviors o stereotypes vary widely across different cultures
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cultural myths: no basis in reality – socially created o Fear that a negative stereotype about one’s group will be confirmed Wide societal knowledge of stereotypes Situations where stereotype applies stereotyped group feels they Threat to self disruptive anxiety o Participants 30 F 24 M; measure: quantitative GRE problems; conditions: Threat “gender differences in math” non-threat “no gender diff in math” o Ethnic Stereotype Threat : Participants 20 black 20 white; measure: verbal SAT problems; conditions threat “examining various personal factors that affect performance” non-threat “ examining psychological factors that affect performance” Findings for the Gender Stereotype Threat: when no threat, there was no significant difference between genders (both 15), when there was a threat, females mean score (about 7) was significantly lower than the boys’ mean score (about 25) Findings for the Ethnic Stereotype Threat: when no threat,
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HD 261 Study Guide #3 - Prelim # 3 Study Guide Sex...

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