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Neuromuscular_Handout - KIN 310 SS08 NEUROMUSCULAR UNIT...

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KIN 310 SS08 NEUROMUSCULAR UNIT HANDOUT * See ppt for pictures/diagrams!! I. Nervous System Overview (Ch 2: 60-68) a. Understand the hierarchy of the nervous system i. Control of muscular contraction is accomplished by the ____________ division of the Efferent branch of the _____________ Nervous System b. Know the Anatomy of a Neuron i. Dendrites 1. Receives input from: ii. Cell Body 1. Axon Hillock : iii. Axon 1. Conducts Impulses: iv. Synaptic Knob 1. Neurotransmitters: c. Potentials i. Resting Membrane Potential = -70mV 1. How maintained?? (2 ways) ii. Polarizations: Changes in membrane permeability to _________. -100 mV -70mV 0mV +20mV Hyperpolarization Depolarization iii. Graded Potentials = Localized changes in membrane potential 1
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iv. Action Potential – Rapid and substantial ____________ of neuron’s membrane 1. Lasts < 1ms 2. All or None Principle 3. Propagation a. Saltatory Conduction: b. Velocity Depends on 2 things: 4. Repolarization a. Absolute Refractory Period b. Relative Refractory Period d. Neuromuscular Junction i. Synaptic vesicles move to membrane and release neurotransmitter into the ____________________ ii. The muscle membrane (________________) has receptors that bind neurotransmitters. Once bound to a receptor, this electric nervous signal becomes a chemical signal that stimulates or inhibits muscular contractions. II. Muscle Anatomy Review(Ch 1: Pgs 34-40) a. 3 Types of Muscle: Skeletal, Smooth, Cardiac. What are some differences? b. Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle i. Epimysium → Endomysium → Perimysium ii. Muscle → Fasiculus → Muscle Fiber → Myofibril iii. Muscle Fiber (cell) 1. Sarcolemma = 2
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2. T-Tubule – Why Important? 3. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum – What’s Stored here? 4. Sarcoplasm – What’s stored here? 5. Mitochondria – What happens here? 6. Nucleus 7. Myofibril = Contractile Element a. Microfilaments arranged in Sarcomeres iv. Myofibril – each muscle fiber contains 100’s-1000’s of myofibrils! 1. Arrangement of microfilaments give muscle characteristic _____________ appearance 2. Sarcomere = smallest functional unit of a muscle a. Arranged end-to-end at Z-line b. See diagrams! – Know bands! 3. Actin = _________ filament a. Troponin b. Tropomyosin c. Nebulin 4. Myosin = ________ filament a. Myosin head has ________________ stored on it! b. 2 protein strands twisted together c. Titin III. Muscular Contraction (Ch 1: 40-43) a. Motor Unit – determines how many fibers contract i. DEF: ii. When a motor unit gets an Action Potential, every fiber that it synapses with contracts! iii. Motor Unit Size: b. Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction: i. GOAL is to make the _________________ shorten! If that happens the whole muscle shortens, thereby pulling on a tendon, which pulls on a bone, creating movement.
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