Chap 2 Genetics

Chap 2 Genetics - 1. Genes and Chromosomes a. Genome - an...

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1. Genes and Chromosomes a. Genome - an organism's unique and complete set of genetic information (DNA) b. Chromosomes i. The chromosome set present in organisms from the same species has a characteristic chromosome number and appearance ii. Diploid 1. Contain two complete genomes and two identical chromosomes sets 2. Important feature of the nuclear genetic material of most animals and plants 3. Homologous chromosomes (homologs) a. DNA sequences of the members of a homologous pair are generally the same b. In diploids, each gene is present in a gene pair c.Physical pairing of homologs takes place during meiosis iii. Haploid 1. The nucleus contains only one set of chromosomes 2. Many species are normally haploid a. Ex. Fungi (including molds, yeasts, and mushrooms) and algae 3. Important in genetic research as model organisms because they are easily manipulated genetically iv. Haploid Number (designated n) 1. The number of chromosomes in the basic genomic set v. Features of Chromosomes 1. Nucleosomes a. DNA wrapped around the molecular spools b. Composed of an octamer of proteins (histones) 2. Chromatin a. The stuff of chromosomes
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Chap 2 Genetics - 1. Genes and Chromosomes a. Genome - an...

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