Lecture_6-__Arousal,_Anxiety,_&_Stress - Arousal, Stress,...

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Unformatted text preview: Arousal, Stress, and Anxiety Activity Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) Scoring Do not score items 1, 4, 7, 10, 13 (disguise) Hardly ever = 1, sometimes = 2, often = 3 Reverse score items 6 and 11 Range 10 30 Is Arousal the Same As Anxiety? Arousal General physiological and psychological activation, varying in intensity along a continuum. Sleep Drowsy Relaxed Alert Excited Neither pleasant or unpleasant connotation Is Arousal the Same As Anxiety? (cont.) Anxiety: Negative emotional state with feelings of worry, nervousness, and apprehension associated with activation or arousal of the body Components of anxiety: Cognitive: Worry, apprehension Somatic: Perceived physiological activation Anxiety State Anxiety An arousal state characterized by feelings of apprehension, nervousness, and tension A measure of how an athlete feels at a particular moment in time Anxiety (cont.) Trait Anxiety a personality disposition where an individual has a tendency to perceive numerous situations as threatening and respond with varying levels of increased state anxiety Anxiety (cont.) Competitive Anxiety An individual's tendency to perceive competitive situations as threatening and respond to these situations with state anxiety Sport specific Marten's Model Marten's Model of Competitive Anxiety Competitive A-Trait OCS Perception of Threat A-State Reaction Performance Interrelationships of Arousal, Trait Anxiety, and State Anxiety Measurement Physiological Heart rate Respiration Skin conductance Psychological self-report (global, multidimensional) Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) Competitive State Anxiety Inventory - 2 (CSAI-2) Activity In your sport/physical activity experience, do you typically perform best under conditions of low, moderate, or high arousal? Have you ever been anxious and it has hurt your performance? What happened? How could you have fixed it? Stress Stress: substantial imbalance between physical and psychological demands placed on an individual and his or her response capability under conditions in which failure to meet demands has important consequences Stress Process Sources of Stress Situational Event importance Uncertainty Personal Trait anxiety Self-esteem Social physique anxiety The Arousal-Performance Relationship Drive Theory Inverted-U Hypothesis Individualized Zones of Optimal Functioning Multidimensional Anxiety Theory Catastrophe Theory Facilitative and Debilitative Model The Arousal-Performance Relationship Drive Theory (Hull, 1940; Spence & Spence, 1966) P = f{H x D} Physiological arousal Practical implication: psych-up Little supported Drive Theory Model High Performance Mod Low Low Mod AROUSAL High The Arousal-Performance Relationship (cont.) Inverted-U Hypothesis (YerkesDodson Law) Low arousal = low performance As arousal increases, so does performance up to an optimal point Further increases in arousal past this point decreases performance Optimal = middle Physiological arousal Inverted-U Hypothesis The Arousal-Performance Relationship (cont.) Individualized Zones of Optimal Functioning (Hanin) Zone of optimal state anxiety Differs from Inverted-U Optimal middle Optimal is a zone The Arousal-Performance Relationship (cont.) ZOF (+/- 1 SD) ZOP HIGH MOD LOW LOW MOD AROUSAL HIGH The Arousal-Performance Relationship (cont.) The Arousal-Performance Relationship (cont.) Multidimensional Anxiety theory Type of anxiety matters Cognitive anxiety: negatively related to performance Somatic anxiety: inverted-U Limited support for predictions The Arousal-Performance Relationship (cont.) Catastrophe Theory Cognitive anxiety determines relationship Low worry: Inverted-U High worry: Increases in physiological arousal will result in a rapid and dramatic decline in performance Cognitive anxiety not necessarily bad Difficult to test The Arousal-Performance Relationship (cont.) The Arousal-Performance Relationship (cont.) Anxiety Direction and Intensity Intensity How much anxiety a person feels Direction Helpful to performance (facilitative) or harmful to performance (debilitative) Viewing anxiety as facilitative leads to superior performance. State anxiety is perceived as facilitative or debilitative depending on how much control the person perceives. Developing cognitive skills and strategies helps individuals view anxiety as facilitative. Jones (1995) Model of Facilitative and Debilitative Anxiety Significance of All ArousalPerformance Views Arousal is multifaceted Physical activation and interpretation Arousal and state anxiety don't always have a negative effect on performance (depends on interpretation) Self-confidence and enhanced perceptions of control are critical to perceiving anxiety as facilitative Some optimal level of arousal leads to peak performance, but the optimal levels of physiological activation and cognitive activation are not the same Significance of All ArousalPerformance Views (cont.) Interpretation of arousal is important- not absolute level of arousal Unlikely that optimal arousal is at midpoint of the arousal scale "Psyching-up" strategies should be employed with caution because it's difficult to recover from catastrophe Athletes should have well-practiced psychological skills for coping with anxiety Explanation for the ArousalPerformance Relationship Muscle tension Fatigue Coordination difficulties Attentional changes Narrowed attentional focus Decreased visual scanning Shift to dominant (inappropriate?) attentional style Antecedents of Anxiety Sources of psychological stress Fear of failure Feelings of inadequacy Loss of internal control Guilt Antecedents of Anxiety (cont.) Sources of psychological stress (cont.) Current physical state Social evaluation Worry about not performing well* Improving on the last performance * Significant predictors of performance Antecedents of Anxiety (cont.) Sources of psychological stress (cont.) What the coach will think or say* Losing* Not performing up to one's ability Performer's physical condition * Significant predictors of performance So What Can We Do? Identify optimal arousal-related emotions Recognize how personal and situational factors interact to influence arousal, anxiety, and performance Individualize coaching/instructional practices So What Can We Do? (cont.) Recognize the signs of increased arousal in performers Cold, clammy hands Sweating Butterflies/nausea Frequent urination Negative ST Muscle tension Cotton mouth Difficulty sleeping So What Can We Do? (cont.) Develop performer's confidence for coping with stress Foster positive environment Instill positive orientation towards mistakes Simulation ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2008 for the course KIN 340 taught by Professor Hepler during the Summer '07 term at Michigan State University.

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