Lecture_8-_Motivation__student_ - Motivation What is...

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Unformatted text preview: Motivation What is Motivation? Direction and intensity of effort or avoid a situation Approach Effects of Motivation Choice of activity (opponent, task) Effort to pursue goals (practice) Intensity of effort in pursuit of goals Persistence in the face of failure Factors Influencing One's Level of Motivation Athlete Need factors Task factors of sport skill Personality Type to achieve Expectations Interests Goals Difficulty Complexity Inherent excitement Approaches to Motivation Trait-centered Situation-centered Interactional Achievement Motivation (AM) & Competitiveness AM Tendency to strive for success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in success Competitiveness Disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence evaluative others Need Achievement Theory Resultant Tendency Achieve Beh Seek achieve sit., challenge Enhanced performance Avoid achieve sit., challenge Poor performance Person MS Situation Prob of Emotion Rxn Pride of Success = Approach Success X Succ MF Value of Succ = Avoid Failure Shame of Failure Attribution Theory Explanations for success or failure Infinite number of attributions for a performance Categorized according to: Stability Controllability Locus of Causality Attribution Theory (cont.) Examples Stable: ability, team Unstable: effort, luck, preparation Controllable: effort, preparation Uncontrollable: luck, weather, officials Internal: effort, teamwork External: crowd, opponent, playing conditions Most are classified along all 3 dimensions simultaneously Effort: unstable, internal, controllable Attribution Theory (cont.) Emotions: Experiencing pride or shame Motivation: Can increase or decrease motivation Expectancy of success: Increase or decrease expectancy of success Achievement Goal Theory Three factors determine motivation Achievement goals Perceived ability Achievement behavior Achievement goals + Perceived ability = Achievement behavior To understand motivation, must understand what success and failure means to that person Achievement Goal Theory (cont.) Achievement Ego Comparison goals Achievement orientation behavior Performance Ability is stable Task orientation Improvement Ability can be improved Effort Persistence Task choice Perceived ability *High vs. Low Task and Ego Orientation Research Task Strong work ethic, persistence, and optimal performance Focusing on personal performance leads to greater control Higher perceived competence Ego Reduced efforts and increased excuses Protect self-worth through task selection Difficulty maintaining perceived competence Achievement Goal Theory (cont.) Predictions: High Ego Orientation + High Perceived Competence = Choosing difficult tasks, but not challenging enough to result in failure High Ego Orientation + Low Perceived Competence = Either avoid the situation or choose very extreme tasks. (i.e. very difficult or very easy tasks) Achievement Goal Theory (cont.) Proposed Dimensions: Social Approval Feel competent and successful when praised for the effort put forth Work Avoidance effort while achieving desired results Little Splitting groups: ego-orientation into two opposing Self-Enhancing Ego Orientation Self-Defeating Ego Orientation Achievement Goal Theory (cont.) Primary orientation develops during childhood and stabilizes at mid to late adolescence Significant others Situations they are placed in Never underestimate power of the situation (evaluation) Event Selection Previous head-to-heads Financial rewards opposing crowd Competence Motivation Theory People are motivated to feel competent Perception of control, competence, and self-worth influence motivation Affect mediates relationship Feedback and reinforcement from others and motivational orientations are determinants Comparing High and Low Achievers High Achiever Hi Ms, Lo Mf Low Achiever Lo Ms, Hi Mf Pride in success Succ= stable, control, internal; Fail= unstable, external, uncontrol Task goals Seeks challenges Performs well in evaluative conditions Shame of failure Succ= unstable, uncontrol, external; Fail= stable, internal, control Outcome goals Avoids challenges Performs poor in evaluative conditions Developing AM and Competitiveness 3 Stages Autonomous competence stage (under 4) Mastery over environment No peer comparison Social Peer comparison stage (5 - ?) comparison Integrated Mastery stage (??) and social comparison Depends on situation Application of the Stages How would the stages of learning affect the way a coach, teacher, parent, etc. structures the learning environment for a young athlete? Implications of Achievement Motivation Recognize interactional factors situations Orientation Approach/avoid Emphasize Coach task goals (motivational climate) Wooden Determine when competitive goals are appropriate Enhance feelings of competence and control Use appropriate feedback Create individualized challenges and goals Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Engaging Types: in an activity for the pleasure of doing the activity To know To accomplish To stimulate Extrinsic Motivation Engaging Types: Integrated in an activity to receive awards/rewards regulationIdentified regulation- value behavior Introjected regulation- value rewards Amotivation Factors Affecting IM and EM Social Factors Success and failure Competition (including self) Coaches' behaviors Psychological Need factors for competence Need for autonomy Need for relatedness Effects of EM on IM Two processes by which extrinsic reward can affect IM Controlling processes Informational Processes Effects of EM on IM (cont.) Controlling Rewards Processes are perceived as controlling the person's behavior resulting in conflict with his/her need to be selfdetermining Decrease in motivation Effects of EM on IM (cont.) Informational Can Information Information Processes lead to increase or decrease in IM: indicating high competence will increase IM indicating low competence will decrease IM Scholarships as External Reward Ryan Studies Study #1 (1977) FB players on scholarship reported: Lower enjoyment of FB Decreased IM every year they held their scholarship Lowest level of enjoyment occurred during their senior year Scholarships as External Reward Ryan Studies Study #2 (1980) Surveyed male & female athletes in various sports Scholarship players reported less IM than non-scholarship athletes Male wrestlers and female athletes from 6 different sports reported higher levels of IM (Why?) Flow: A Special Case of IM Csiksentmihalyi The -- Psychology of Optimal Performance (1990) Goal: To experience the activity Has been used to describe a variety of activities with a variety of people Characteristics of Flow A Goals merging of action and awareness of activity are clear Means to reach goals are clear Total concentration Loss of self-consciousness Sense of control Tips for Achieving Flow Sufficient motivation Optimal arousal Maintain appropriate attentional focus Precompetitive/competitive plans Optimal environmental conditions Confidence, positive attitude ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2008 for the course KIN 340 taught by Professor Hepler during the Summer '07 term at Michigan State University.

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