Lecture_12-_Burnout__Psych_of_Injury__st

Lecture_12-_Burnout__Psych_of_Injury__st - Burnout and...

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Unformatted text preview: Burnout and Overtraining Overtraining • Short cycle of training during which athletes undergo excessive training loads that are at or near maximal capacity • With adequate rest and recover it improves performance • With inadequate rest and recover it impairs performance – Can lead to staleness and/or burnout Staleness • A physiological state of overtraining associated with deteriorated athletic readiness – Difficulty maintaining standard training regimen – Inability to perform at previous standards • Must be a significant reduction in performance (5% or more) over an extended period of time (2 weeks or more) Burnout • Physical, psychological, and emotional exhaustion resulting from attempts to meet excessive demands of training and competition • Characterized by: – Withdrawal (psychological, emotional, and/or physical) from activity – Mental and physical exhaustion – Low perceived competence – Low self-esteem – Feelings of failure, possibly depression – Devaluation of the activity Symptoms of Overtraining • • • • • • • • • • Poor Performance Physical fatigue/lethargy Mental exhaustion Muscle pain or soreness Delayed recovery from exercise Weight Loss Depression Apathy Sleep problems Elevated resting heart rate and blood pressure • Overuse injuries Research on Causes of Burnout • Gould, Tuffey, Udrey Loehr (1996) • Youth tennis players – – – – Physical concerns Logistical concerns Social or interpersonal concerns Psychological concerns Research on Causes of Burnout (cont.) • 2 “strains” of burnout – Social-Psychological • Perfectionism • Situational – Physical Symptoms of Burnout • • • • • • • • • • • Low motivation Loss of desire to play Physical exhaustion Mental exhaustion Lack of caring Depression Increased anxiety Sleep problems Mood changes Emotional isolation Decreased self-esteem Treatment/Prevention of Burnout • Monitor athletes – Especially during times of high stress • Establish social support networks – Communicate with them • Set short-term goals for practice and competition • Take a break • Use PST to self-regulate stress, anxiety and emotions (achieve balance in life) • Stay positive Psychology of Injury Why Learn Psych of Injury? • Psychological factors are secondary causes of injury • Athletes who appear physically ready to return, may not feel psych prepared • Key role in rehab process Model of Stress and Injury Personality Pot stressful situation History of stress Coping resources Perc Stress Resp Attention of Tension threat Psych skill interven Injury Factors that Predispose Athletes to Injury • History of stressors – Life change events – Daily hassles – Previous injury • Personality – Limited research support – Sport specific measures • Locus of control • Trait anxiety • Coping resources – Social support – Mental skills • Same factors also influence injury recovery Explaining the Stress-Injury Relationship • Attention disruption – Narrowing of peripheral vision • Ex. failure to locate defensive player – Increased distractibility • Task irrelevant cues • Increased muscle tension Athletes’ Reactions to Injury • Initially believed to be similar to death and dying stages (Kubler-Ross) – – – – – Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Athletes’ Reactions to Injury • Three General Categories of Responses – Injury relevant information processing • Focuses on information related to the injury • Recognizes negative consequences/inconvenience – Emotional upheaval and reactive behavior • Emotionally agitated, depleted, isolated, disbelief, denial, self-pity – Positive outlook and coping • Accepts and deals with injury Other Reactions to Injury • Identity loss • Fear and anxiety (recovery, reinjury, losing position) • Lack of Confidence • Performance decrements Signs of Poor Adjustment • Feelings of anger and confusion • Obsession with question of when one can return to play • Denial • Repeatedly coming back too soon and experiencing reinjury • Exaggerated bragging about accomplishments Signs of Poor Adjustment (cont.) • Dwelling on minor physical complaints • Guilt about letting the team down • Withdrawal from significant others • Rapid mood swings • Statements indicating that no matter what is done, recovery Research on Injury Recovery • Fast healing athletes vs. slow healing – – – Goal setting Positive self-talk Imagery and relaxation • Psychological injury interventions – – – Recovery Coping Confidence • Psychological as well as physical improvement Implications • Prior to injury – Monitor stressors of athletes/clients – Monitor muscle tension – Train hard and smart – Teach difference between discomfort and pain – Teach stress management skills – Teach coping skills Implications (cont.) • Initial injury/illness phase – Help athlete with emotional upheaval especially if careerending – Provide information about injury and recovery process – Build rapport Implications (cont.) • Rehab-Recovery Phase – Help maintain motivation and adherence – Support for setbacks – Coping strategies • Set goals (return date, number of therapy sessions, strength) • Self-talk (thought stoppage, cognitive restructuring) • Imagery (game situations, recovery) • Relaxation Implications (cont.) • Return to Full Activity Phase – Recovery not complete until athlete can function normally (not just cleared) – Support for “poor” performance The Role of Social Support in the Injury Recovery Process • Athletes who are injured often feel isolated • Types of social support – Emotional – Informational – Tangible • The type of social support varies across the rehab phases • Reintegration is important ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2008 for the course KIN 340 taught by Professor Hepler during the Summer '07 term at Michigan State University.

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