Chapter 3 Personality Perception and Attribution

Chapter 3 Personality Perception and Attribution - School...

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School of Hotel Administration HADM 1115: Organizational Behavior Cornell University Fall 2008 Chapter 3 Personality Perception and Attribution Individual Differences and Organizational Behavior o Individuals = unique They have different skills, abilities, personalities, perceptions, attitudes, emotions, and ethics o Cause the challenge of management Managers must understand individual differences o Basis to understand: Lewin’s early contention that behavior is a function of the person and the environment He expressed this in an equation: B = ∫(P, E), where B = behavior, P = person and E = environment. This idea has been developed by the interactional psychology Basically means you need to know about person and environment o Four Basic propositions of interactional psychology Behavior is a function of a continuous multidirectional interaction between the person and the situation The person is active in this process and is situations and changes situations People vary both changed by in many characteristics, including cognitive, affective, motivational, and ability factors Two interpretations of situations are important The objective situation and the person’s subjective view of the situation Personality and Organizations o Personality is the relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual’s behavior It has several origins Heredity Environment o Trait Theory Early researches believed that we must break down behavior patterns into a series of observable traits Trait Theory is the belief that when you combine these traits into a group it forms an individual’s personality Gordon Allport Thousands of traits have been identified Raymond Cattell identified 16 traits that formed the basis for differences in individual behavior Ex. self-assured/apprehensive o Big Five Personality Model The Big Five is one popular personality classification The Personality Traits are: Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness to Experience Some people claim that this is too simple and diluted
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School of Hotel Administration HADM 1115: Organizational Behavior Cornell University Fall 2008 o Integrative Approach Personality is described as a composite of the individual’s psychological processes Personality dispositions include emotions cognitions attitudes expectancies and fantasies Simply individuals’ tendencies to respond to situations in consistent ways Influenced by genetics and experiences Can be modified o Personality Characteristics in Organizations
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This note was uploaded on 10/11/2008 for the course H ADM 115 taught by Professor Simons during the Fall '06 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Chapter 3 Personality Perception and Attribution - School...

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