Course Hero Logo

Chapter5-BookNotes.pdf - I. The States United A. Defining...

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 8 pages.

I.The States UnitedA.Defining American War Aims1.2nd Continental Congress (CC) agreed to support war, but disagreed on its purpose. One group led by John and Sam Adams favored full independence, others, such as John Dickinson, wanted modest reforms in imperial relationship. Although most sought middle ground2.They approved the “Olive Branch Petition” which was a conciliatory appeal to the king, then July 1775 “Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms”a)this said that the British government left the people with an ultimatum: either submission to tyranny of irritated ministers or resistance by force3.Public at first fought not for independence but redress of grievances, but later they began to change reasons because cost of war too large for such modest aims, anger over British recruitment of Indians, slaves, mercenaries, and because the British government rejected Olive Branch Petition and enacted “Prohibitory Act” (a naval blockade)4.January 1776 Common Sense by Thomas Paine was revolutionary propaganda, It argued that problem was not parliamentary acts but English constitution, king, and ruling system. It also said the British government was no longer fit to rule because of brutality and corruptiona)he believed Americans should break completely from the British gov., It was “common sense” for Americans to revolt(1)Because the US is huge with unlimited resources and Eng is tiny with limited resources(2)A dictatorship is a bad form of government, plus the dictator is a bad one(3)Potential to be rich, but Eng stops that because of mercantilism(4)We are Americans- a new identity, not Englishmen B.The Decision for Independence1.After Common Sense support grew, CC recommended colonies establish independent govʼs from British.2.July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independencea)Dec of Indep. written mostly by Thomas Jefferson, restated contract theory of John Locke that governments were formed to protect rights of “life, liberty, pursuit of happiness”, then listed alleged crimes of king and Parliamentb)Dec. inspired French Revolutionʼs Dec. of the rights of Men, claimed sovereign “United States of America”, and led to increased foreign aidC.Responses to Independence1.At news of Dec many rejoiced but others disapproved because they still had great loyalty to kinga)they called themselves Loyalists but independents called them Tories2.Colonies began calling themselves states, and drafted constitutions to replace royal governments a)by 1781, states had produced written constitutions establishing republican governments
3.The states considered themselves centers of authority, but war required central directiona)this meant they balanced the commitment to the state and local autonomy against the need for some centralized authority4.1777 Articles of Confederation were passed, but they did little more than confirming the weak, decentralized system already in place. Continental Congress remained the main coordinator of war effort- but had little control

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 8 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture