Chapter 5.docx - Introduction When people who are not...

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Introduction - When people who are not experts discuss gender comparisons in thinking, there are trends in their viewpoints: o 1. They almost always emphasize gender differences, and ignore substantial evidence for gender similarities o They typically highlight biological explanations for the small number of comparisons that reveal significant gender differences Cautions About this Chapter - 1. Biased samples can influence results - 2. People’s expectations can influence results - 3. If we measure some ability, and then we create one graph for the scores of males and another graph for the scores of females, the two distributions of scores will overlap substantially (Diagram on page 146 for two overlapping distributions) - 4. Researchers seldom find gender differences in all situations - 5. The cognitive gender differences are not large enough to have a major influence on a person’s career choice Meta-analysis Approach - Box-score approach o Researchers read through all of the appropriate studies on a given topic and draw conclusions based on a tally of their outcomes o Hard to draw clear conclusions with a study like this, keeping a tally isn’t looking into other variables - Meta-analysis o Provides a statistical method for combining numerous studies on a given topic o More reliable because it is a more quantitative analysis rather than just keeping a tally o Researchers locate all studies on a specific topic, and then conduct statistical analyses Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities - There are some general categories where gender similarities are typical: o 1. General intelligence o 2. Complex cognitive tasks - General intelligence o
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