Chapter 7.docx - Chapter 7 Women and Work Background...

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Chapter 7: Women and Work Background Factors Related to Women’s Employment - The general term working women refers to two categories: o Employed Women Women who work for pay This may include women who receive a salary or are self-employed o Non-employed Women Women who are not paid for their work They may do work for their families or their own homes, or volunteer organizations, but do not receive money for these services Information About Employed Women - One of the best predictors of whether a woman works outside the home is her education background o Women with at least a master’s degree are much more likely than women with less than four years of high school to be employed outside the home o In Canada, 75% of women with a university degree are currently employed, compared to 37% of women who attended high school but did not graduate - Data from the U.S. shows that women with young children do not differ from other women in their rate of employment **missing info** - Current data also show that ethnicity is not strongly related to participation in the labor force o However, women of color tend to be underrepresented in most high salary occupations - Immigrant women face different barriers to employment o Immigrants’ salaries are significantly lower than nonimmigrants with comparable training Discrimination in Hiring Patterns - Steinpreis et al. (1999) o All professors received the same resume - however, half used the name “Karen Miller” and the other half used the name “Brian Miller” o Female applicant 47% said they would hire her o Male applicant 75% said they would hire her o Female professors were just as likely as male professors to demonstrate the biased hiring pattern - Access Discrimination – refers to the discrimination used in hiring (e.g., rejecting well- qualified female applicants or offering them less attractive positions) When does access discrimination operate??
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- Employers who have strong gender stereotypes are more likely to demonstrate access discrimination - Access discrimination is particularly likely to operate when the applicant’s qualifications are ambiguous - Employers often discriminate against women candidates who are assertive, rather than feminine - Access discrimination is particularly likely to operate when women apply for a prestigious position - Access discrimination often operates for both women and men when they apply for “gender-inappropriate” jobs - To summarize, a woman is likely to not be considered for a job when… o The evaluators hold strong stereotypes o When a woman’s qualifications are ambiguous o When she is considered too assertive o When the position is prestigious o
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