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Graph camin's original tree

Graph camin's original tree - CLASSIFICATION AND EVOLUTION...

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CLASSIFICATION AND EVOLUTION Robert P. Gendron Indiana University of Pennsylvania Caminalcules are imaginary animals invented by the evolutionary biologist Joseph Camin. They make ideal organisms for introducing students to two related topics: taxonomic classification and evolution. In this lab exercise the students first classify 14 "living"species into genera, families, etc. Then they construct an evolutionary tree of the Caminalcules using an additional 57 "fossil" species. This illustrates how modern classification schemes attempt to reflect evolutionary history. In the process of doing this exercise the students are also introduced to concepts such as convergent evolution and vestigial structures. The pictures of the Caminalcules are copyrighted by the journal Systematic Biology and Robert R. Sokal. They are made available here with permission. You are free to use and modify this lab in your own courses with the following provisions: 1. You let me know if you use the lab and how it worked. (Any comments and suggestions would be appreciated as well.). 2. Some mention is made of where the lab came from, even if it is modified. 3. If the lab is sold to students (e.g. as part of a lab manual) this be done at cost and not for profit. This document contains 1. This cover sheet 2. The Classification and Evolution Lab handout 3. Pictures of the Caminalcules (in MS Word format) 4. Instructor Notes for both a two- and three-hour lab 5. A diagram of the correct phylogenetic tree (see below) Note that in my lab I use only a subset of all the 77 Caminalcules. To use the entire set would increase the time needed to complete the lab without appreciably increasing its educational value. Thus, the phylogenetic tree that is reproduced here is a “pruned” version of the original; I digitally removed those branches that are not represented by my subset of Caminalcules. If you want the entire set of Caminalcules and the complete phylogenetic tree you can contact me or scan in the pictures from the original source (Sokal, R.R. 1983. A phylogenetic analysis of the Caminalcules. I. The data base. Systematic Zoology 323:159- 184). Robert P. Gendron Biology Department Indiana University of Pennsylvania Indiana, PA 15705 [email protected]
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CLASSIFICATION AND EVOLUTION Robert P. Gendron Indiana University of Pennsylvania Humans classify almost everything, including each other. This habit can be quite useful. For example, when talking about a car someone might describe it as a 4-door sedan with a fuel injected V-8 engine. A knowledgeable listener who has not seen the car will still have a good idea of what it is like because of certain characteristics it shares with other familiar cars. Humans have been classifying plants and animals for a lot longer than they have been classifying cars, but the principle is much the same. In fact, one of the central problems in biology is the classification of organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. As an example, biologists classify all organisms with a backbone as "vertebrates." In this case the backbone is a characteristic that defines the group.
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