abnormal psych exam 2 study guide.docx

abnormal psych exam 2 study guide.docx - Psyc334 Exam 2...

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Psyc334 Exam 2 Study Guide Depressive and Bipolar Disorders, Suicide What are the major features of the following disorders? How would you distinguish one from another if you were given a case example? - Major Depressive Disorder: episode lasts for at least 2 weeks, feel worthless and indecisive, appetite and sleep disturbance (sleep more and significant increase or decrease in appetite), diminished interest in daily activities ( anhedonia ), insomnia or hypersomnia, noticeable psychomotor agitation or retardation, loss of energy, diminished ability to think or make decisions, recurrent thoughts of death, significant distress, symptoms not due to medication or substance - Persistent Depressive Disorder (dysthymia): episode lasts for at least 2 years, no more than 2 weeks without symptoms, can last for 20-30 years, milder symptoms than major depression, have a little more insight on their depression so it’s easier to treat, considered more severe than major depressive disorder - Bipolar I: severe mania alternates with severe depression, experiences full manic episode, often deny that they have a problem, make impulsive decisions - Bipolar II: moderate mania alternates with severe depression, hypomanic mania which is less severe, although mood change is prevalent in the up stage the person can still function - Cyclothymia: long standing depression with alternating moderate mania, similar in many ways to persistent depressive disorder, can be in one mood state for years, substantial enough to interfere with functioning, can eventually develop bipolar I or II What is Beck’s “Cognitive Triad” and how might it manifest in the thoughts of a depressed person? - The self: I’m ugly - The world: no one loves me - The future: it’s all hopeless because this is never going to change What other cognitive factors (i.e. diatheses) may be most likely to lead to or put a person at risk for depression ? - Already having a biological or psychological vulnerability for depression and experiencing a stressful life event may trigger: activation of stress hormones and neurotransmitters, a negative schema and attitude, leading to problems with interpersonal relationships and a lack of social support What are the major environmental, genetic, and temperamental risk factors for developing depressive disorders? How might these factors interact? (one example: the study discussed in class looking at how the serotonin transporter gene and environmental events interacted) - The brain structure that plays a role in the development of depression is the hippocampus - Environmental risk factors: availability of method, humiliating life event, suicide exposure - Genetic risk factors: family history (affects women more than men), personality traits like impulsivity
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- Mood swings are caused by low levels of serotonin, which can cause other neurotransmitters to get out of whack (norepinephrine and dopamine) - Biological factors: 5HIAA, perinatal factors Identify the major treatments for Major Depressive Disorder, and know what order they should be given in (for instance, should psychotherapy be tried before deep brain stimulation, or vice versa?)
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