Intellectual-disability-in-children_-Evaluation-for-a-cause-UpToDate (1).pdf

Intellectual-disability-in-children_-Evaluation-for-a-cause-UpToDate (1).pdf

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3/21/2017 Intellectual disability in children: Evaluation for a cause ­ UpToDate ; 1/25 Official reprint from UpToDate ©2017 UpToDate Intellectual disability in children: Evaluation for a cause Authors: Penelope Pivalizza, MD , Seema R Lalani, MD Section Editors: Marc C Patterson, MD, FRACP , Helen V Firth, DM, FRCP, DCH , Carolyn Bridgemohan, MD Deputy Editor: Carrie Armsby, MD, MPH All topics are updated as new evidence becomes available and our peer review process is complete. Literature review current through: Feb 2017. | This topic last updated: May 26, 2016. INTRODUCTION — Intellectual disability (ID) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multiple etiologies that is characterized by deficits in intellectual and adaptive functioning presenting before 18 years of age. ID encompasses a broad spectrum of functioning, disability, and strengths [ 1 ]. ID is an important public health issue because of its prevalence and the need for extensive support services. Its management requires early diagnosis and intervention, coupled with access to health care and appropriate supports. Identifying a cause enables focused interventions, treatments, surveillance, and appropriate counseling, with anticipation of possible medical or behavioral complications and a more specific prognosis [ 2 ]. This topic reviews the epidemiology of ID and the evaluation of affected children for a specific cause. Other aspects of ID are discussed separately: TERMINOLOGY — The following terms are used throughout this topic (see "Intellectual disability in children: Definition, diagnosis, and assessment of needs", section on 'Definitions' ): EPIDEMIOLOGY Prevalence — The prevalence of ID varies substantially among studies due to differences in study design, diagnostic approach, severity of the condition, and population characteristics, such as age. In the general population, the prevalence of ID (with deficits in both adaptive and intellectual functioning) is approximately 1 percent [ 3­8 ]. ID is mild in approximately 85 percent of affected individuals. The prevalence of global developmental delay (GDD; ie, intellectual and adaptive impairment in children <5 years old) is estimated to be 1 to 3 percent [ 9 ]. GDD does not necessarily predict later ID, although there is a strong ® ® (See "Intellectual disability in children: Definition, diagnosis, and assessment of needs" .) (See "Intellectual disability in children: Management, outcomes, and prevention" .) Intellectual disability – Intellectual disability (ID) is a state of functioning that begins in childhood and is characterized by limitations in intelligence and adaptive skills. The term replaces and improves upon the older term of "mental retardation." A variety of other terms are used outside of the United States to describe ID ( table 1 ). The severity of ID is defined according to the level of support needed to address impaired adaptive functioning. Standardized intelligence quotient testing is no longer used to classify severity of
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  • Fall '15
  • Phan Quoc Khanh

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