Ch03_Lecture

Ch03_Lecture - 3 Macromolecules and the Origin of Life 3...

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3 Macromolecules and the Origin of Life
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3 Macromolecules and the Origin of Life 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things? 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates? 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids? 3.5 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids? 3.6 How Did Life on Earth Begin?
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3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things? Molecules in living organisms: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids Most are polymers of smaller molecules called monomers . Macromolecules : polymers with molecular weights >1000
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Table 3.1
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Figure 3.3 Substances Found in Living Tissues
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3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things? Polymers are formed in condensation reactions . Monomers are joined by covalent bonds. A water is removed—also called dehydration reaction .
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Figure 3.4 Condensation and Hydrolysis of Polymers (A)
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3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things? Polymers are broken down into monomers in hydrolysis reactions. ( hydro , “water”; lysis , “break”)
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Figure 3.4 Condensation and Hydrolysis of Polymers (B)
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3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? Functions of proteins: Structural support-cytoskeleton Protection-cell wall Transport-pumps, channels, circulating/binding Catalysis-enzymes Defense-antibodies Regulation-receptors, hormones Movement-flagella, cytoskeleton Examples not in book. You NEED to know them!
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3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? Proteins are made from 20 different amino acids (monomeric units) Polypeptide chain: single, unbranched chain of amino acids The chains are folded into specific three dimensional shapes. Proteins can consist of more than one type of polypeptide chain.
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3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? The composition of a protein: relative amounts of each amino acid present The sequence of amino acids in the chain determines the protein structure and function.
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3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? Amino acids have carboxyl and amino groups—they function as both acid and base.
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3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? The side chains or R-groups have functional groups. Amino acids can be grouped based on side chains.
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These hydrophylic amino acids attract ions of opposite charges. Table 3.2 (Part 1)
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Hydrophylic amino acids with polar but uncharged side chains form hydrogen bonds Table 3.2 (Part 2)
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Table 3.2 (Part 3) Hydrophobic amino acids
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Table 3.2 (Part 4)
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Figure 3.5 A Disulfide Bridge
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What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? Amino acids bond together covalently by
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2008 for the course ECON 201 taught by Professor Sebastien during the Fall '08 term at UChicago.

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Ch03_Lecture - 3 Macromolecules and the Origin of Life 3...

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