POLS103 Study Notes

POLS103 Study Notes - SDSU POLS 101 Ingram Spring 2006...

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SDSU – POLS 101 – Ingram Spring 2006 – Midterm 1 Notes 1. Personalized P.R. - vote for the person and for a party as in Germany. Germany uses the (PR) system to decide their electoral system. PR is a system that allocate legislative seats based on a party’s percentage of the popular vote. If a party receives 10% of the popular vote, it should receive 10% of the seats in the Bundestag. 2. Duverger’s Law is a principle which asserts that a majority voting election system naturally leads to a two-party system. The discovery of this principle is attributed to Maurice Duverger, a French sociologist Electoral Law Party Systems Cases Single-member plurality 2 U.K, U.S P.R- Proportional representation 3+ 3 rd and 4 th rep of France S.M.P- P.R hybrid 2 dominant; multi small Germany, Japan 1993- Russia 93- SNTV w/rural malapportionment 1 dominant; multi small Japan 1955-1993 Controlled nominations 1 Soviet 1971-90, China 49- now 3. Single-member Districts is a system used to elect members of a parliament which is based on single member constituencies. One district one vote 4. Proportional Representation is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). percentage of the vote is how many seats you get 5. Heads of State and Government England Queen Elizabeth II Prime Minister Tony Blair France President Jacques Chirac Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin Germany President Horst Köhle Chancellor Gerhard Schröder Angela Merkel Japan Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro 6. Civil-Military Relationship CIMIC (Civil-Military Cooperation) is the military function through which a commander links to civilian agencies active in a theatre of operations. 7. Constructive Vote of No Confidence is a specialty of the 1949 German constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). It means that the Bundeskanzler (Federal Chancellor, head of government) may only be removed from office by majority vote of Parliament (the Bundestag) if a successor is elected into office at the same time. Germany can only vote no confidence if simultaneously replace government 8. New Labour vs. Conservatives - two British parties dominating election making it a two party system. The program and policies of the main parties usually differ from each other mainly with regard to just one dimension, that of socioeconomic issues. 9. Comparative Method is a technique used by linguists to demonstrate genetic relationships between languages. It aims to prove that two or more historically attested languages are descended from a single proto-language by comparing lists of cognate terms. Comparing two states on a narrow spectrum 10. Parliamentary vs. Presidential Par: fusion of powers; every executive is part of the legislator (UK, Germany, Japan) Pres: separation of powers ( France, US) 11. Federal(Germany) vs. Unitary(France, UK, Japan)
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POLS103 Study Notes - SDSU POLS 101 Ingram Spring 2006...

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