Unformatted text preview: IR 100 Founding Principles and Their Legacy for Foreign Policy Today: The Interaction between Domestic and Foreign Factors Sept. 10 and 12, 2007 Prof. Mary Elise Sarotte Outline
Theories that address domestic as well as foreign factors Detailed analysis of American domestic factors: The founding of the US Competing assessments of the legacy for today Alternative approaches
Focus on public opinion International Political Economy (IPE) International Society, closest to historical approaches Three ways of looking at public opinion
A) Interest groups B) Public opinion C) Domestic institutions Interest Groups
A group of individuals or organizations that share a common objective and take actions to influence the policy process to favor that outcome. Examples: trade-based, defense-related, ethnic groups, single-issue groups, even government agencies in some cases International Political Economy (IPE)
Main strands: Mercantilism Economic Liberalism Marxism Major current scholars: Robert Gilpin, see also Joseph Nye Mercantilism Key tenets: a) Economics are subordinate to politics, part of international competition. b) National security takes precedence. c) Need strong state to ensure smooth running of international trade. d) Use protectionist policies to protect domestic groups. Liberalism, Marxism...
Challenges to Mercantilism Economic Liberalism, dominated by Adam Smith, author of the Wealth of Nations, 1776. Father of economic liberalism. Adam Smith Markets expand spontaneously for the satisfaction of human needs, provided governments do not interfere "Laissez-faire" economics Keynesianism John Maynard Keynes, Cambridge economist Updated economic liberalism Argued for a market "wisely managed" by the state Marxism
Karl Marx, Das Kapital, (Capital), 1867 Key Tenet: Most important factor is the economic class struggle, which is constant across all nations International Society (English School) Reject notion that IR theory is a science Disagree fundamentally with realists that there is a structure of international relations that operates with law-like regularity, from which a scientific theory and predictions can be derived. Rather, seek to base understanding on philosophy, history and law. Key writers: Hedley Bull, Martin Wight, even to a certain extent Henry Kissinger. Understanding the Founding of the US and the Legacy for Today Founding the US: Three Phases
Phase of Revolt, ends with Declaration of Independence, July 1776 (destructive) Phase of the States, ends with Constitutional Convention, summer 1787 (constructive) Phase of the Nation, ratifying and implementing the Constitution after 1787 Battle of Lexington, April 19, 1775 General George Washington Reading the Declaration of Independence to the public, 1776 First written declaration of independence Blackboard reading 3, from David Armitage, The Declaration of Independence: A Global History (2007) Surrender of General Cornwallis at Yorktown (now in Virginia) October 1781 Key Aspects in First Phase
Representation and consent Constitution and rights Sovereignty Transition to second phase, or the phase of the states Outline for Wed., Sept. 12
From the phase of the states to the phase of the nation The Constitutional Convention and the ratification fight What did the Constitution establish? Interpretation: What is its legacy for US foreign policy today? Key goals of second phase Setting up state governments Seeing constitution as a written document Reducing authority of elected governors to a fraction of those of royal governors Emphasizing separation of powers Creating equal electoral districts and requiring annual elections Balancing lower house with upper house, or senate (old Roman term) of wisest members of society James Madison The Constitutional Convention of 1787 Can argue that it acted illegitimately by rules of the day Initial call for constitutional convention was to revise the Articles, not do away with them Sessions conducted in utter secrecy Constitutional Convention, con'd
Procedure for ratifying was cleverly devised; outside existing legal boundaries Machinery for "consent" was not a popular referendum, or referendum of state legislatures Characteristics of the Convention 55 delegates from 12 states RI refused to attend Well-educated white male elite, average age 42 Most influential: Gouverneur Morris and James Wilson of Pennsylvania, Edmund Randolph, George Mason, and James Madison of Virginia. Key questions at the convention
How to balance between large and small states? How to balance between different branches of government? How to change the Constitution? How to balance between national and state authority? One person = one vote? Electoral votes in 2004 presidential election: Wyoming's 3 electoral votes = 1 per 151,000 residents California's 54 electoral votes = 1 per 550,000 residents Roughly, a California resident is only = 1/4 of a Wyoming resident Votes of Delegates at State Ratifying Conventions (1) Delaware Pennsylvania New Jersey Georgia Connecticut Massachusetts Maryland South Carolina 7 Dec. 1787 11 Dec. 1787 18 Dec. 1787 2 Jan. 1788 9 Jan. 1788 6 Feb. 1788 26 Apr. 1788 23 May 1788 30 46 38 26 128 187 63 149 0 23 0 0 40 168 11 73 ...continued
(9) NH 21 June 1788 Virginia 25 June 1788 NY 26 July 1788 NC 21 Nov. 1789 RI 29 May 1790 57 89 30 194 34 47 79 27 77 32 Key institutions established by the Constitution
The "first branch," Congress (House and Senate) The Executive The Judiciary (many of its powers asserted later rather than stated in Constitution) Was the Constitution constructive or destructive?
Destructive: Charles Beard, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution, first published 1913 William Appleman Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy, first published 1959 (assigned reading) Thomas McCormick, 2007 Constructive
Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution, first published 1967 John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know, 1997, and reading in Merrill Balancing between the two views
Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, 1987 Odd Arne Westad, The Global Cold War, 2005 Westad (Blackboard reading 6) Americans understand liberty and property as being inseparable Existence of European empires (or even Indian populations) on American soil intolerable because inconsistent with American liberty Process of defeating European empires began to expand beyond continental borders Securing commerce in a dangerous world and imposing American standards of behavior become two sides of the same coin Westad and Kennedy Problem: results in a difficult balancing act If there is one big lesson of the Cold War, it is that unilateral military intervention does not work to anyone's advantage, while open borders, cultural interaction, and fair economic exchange benefit all. ...
View Full Document