3855B1_01.doc - ,May9,2002 Ooplasm transfer as method to...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
BRMAC Briefing Document for Day 1, May 9, 2002 Ooplasm transfer as method to treat female infertility Introduction Several fertility clinics in the United States are experimenting with ooplasm  transfer. This technique is hypothesized to enhance fertility in women who have failed  conventional  in vitro  fertilization due to poor embryo development. It involves injection  of cellular material (cytoplasm or ooplasm) from a donor egg into the mother’s  unfertilized egg prior to fertilization  in vitro . The transferred material includes proteins,  RNAs, small molecules, and organelles. Prominent among these are mitochondria, the  organelles responsible for cellular aerobic respiration. Mitochondria contain their own  genetic material, as they are thought to have evolved from primitive bacteria. Thus, when ooplasm is transferred, mitochondrial DNA from the donor is transferred to the recipient  egg. Several recent scientific reports document that some children born following use of  this technique do, indeed, carry genetic material from three separate individuals: their  biological parents and the ooplasm donor. The technique is therefore  de facto  germ line  gene transfer and represents the first reported case of “human germline genetic  modification” [1]. This crosses a line drawn by many scientists and bioethicists at altering the genetic profile of unborn children [2;3] and, as a result, has occasioned attention in  scientific publications and the popular press. Ooplasm transfer in the United States Over two dozen births attributed to ooplasm transfer have been reported by three  clinics since 1998. As of June, 2001, at least 8 U.S. clinics were offering this procedure.   Fresh oocytes, frozen oocytes, and tripronucleate zygotes have all been used as sources of donor cytoplasm [4-6]. Both electrofusion of cytoplasts and direct injection have been  investigated as methods of ooplasm transfer. It is not clear what defect is being corrected  by this technique. The active component or components of the transferred ooplasm have  not been identified, nor is there consensus on this point. There are differences in energy  content (ATP) in human oocytes [7] and data that suggest that mitochondrial activity is  negatively correlated with advancing age [8]. These data support the concept that  mitochondria may confer at least a portion of the proposed fertility-enhancing effect of  ooplasm. In rodents, epigenetic modifications of paternal or maternal genomes have been  attributed to differences in cytoplasm, indicating that additional activities of ooplasm may also be relevant [9]. 
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern