GreeksStudyGuide - On Platos Republic: -427 to 347 -386...

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On Plato’s Republic: -427 to 347 -386 returned to Athens to form Academy - Socratic dialogue in 370’s included: - rejecting conventional wisdom (use soul to judge worthiness of others) - Rulers need to use the 3 functions of their souls (minds): (a) to reason; (b) to will or desire; (c) to govern or make decisions - analyze how a city-state should function rationally, justly and see how can apply to individual souls - division of labor according to people’s own nature . Non democratic, prevents versatility. 3 classes of citizens : (a) "craftsmen" (farmers, manufacturers, traders) "auxiliaries" (soldiers), and "guardians" (rulers). - “guardians”: nature includes: good breeding, physical strength, bravery, energetic personality, and love of wisdom. - first principle of just society : each citizen and class should do the work his/her nature best suits them for and not interfere in the work of others - Autonomia: justice can be defined as the ability to govern one’s own soul by not permitting one part or function to interfere with another: this is how a person becomes “his/her own master and law - Democracy is anti-philosophical: The assembly, lawcourt, theater and military camp encourage emotional turmoil in citizens’ souls and prevent thinking rationally - The Cave. For Socrates, Athenians are like prisoners chained deep in a cave, staring ahead at a wall watching project shadows onto the wall of cut-out shapes of everyday objects and actions made by puppeteers (government, teachers. .). This shadow-show , the prisoners believe, is reality. Only the unique prisoner who is a philosopher can tear off the blinders, see the puppeteers, and climb out of the cave to see the real world outside. If he returns to the cave to inform the prisoners, they’ll think he’s insane - Mimesis: (mimicry) Storytelling, poetry and theatre deceive us with their emotional turmoil and debased cut-out shapes: they must be banned from the ideal society--only dialectical argument enlightens us to the otherworldly, spiritual reality of the Forms or Ideas. Antigone : Sophocles (441 BC) 1.) Antigone tests the power of nomos because she undermines Creon’s law by burying her dead brother whom he forbade to be buried. This act represents an act against nomos and shows that normal citizens have more power than they think. Creons ethos, commenting that he will never “lose” to a girl, shows that nomos can sometimes demand too much: Antigone was just showing respect for he dead family member; this is an act almost anyone would want to do for their family, but Creon is going to punish her with death. . Although Antigone’s intentions were good, she was punished by the law and seen as bad because she didn’t follow the rules. Ode to the Human Being (22-23 lines 332-375) in Antigone, states that “Good comes and Bad comes” showing that there is potential for both good and
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evil in the world, and that cities can fall if arrogance and excess reigns. Protagoras’ view of humans is that man could be whatever he wanted to be and
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GreeksStudyGuide - On Platos Republic: -427 to 347 -386...

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