weather,ch,6 - the flow that mix the layers of faster and...

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Notes Weather and Atmosphere February 20, 2006 Chapter 6 Forces that Affect Atmospheric Motion: Wind can result in a difference in air pressure. This difference in pressure can result in a difference of density (more molecules) or a difference in temperature (more energy per collision) Pressure Gradient: the rate at which pressure changes with distance Pressure Gradient Force The force applied to a small parcel of air due to pressure differences Turbulent Eddies The turbulent motions that lead to the mixing of air Mechanical Turbulence Develops when air encounters with obstructions associated with ground roughness Trees, buildings, and terrain features all deflect air in different directions Thermal Turbulence Occurs when air near the earth’s surface is heated and rises and collides with faster moving air at higher altitudes Wind Shear: Exists when winds change over distance Shear induced turbulence When wind speed changes rapidly with distance, typically with height When the vertical shear of the wind becomes large, tumbling motions begin to develop in
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Unformatted text preview: the flow that mix the layers of faster and slower moving air, smoothing the vertical wind profile The boundary Layer or The Friction Layer The atmospheric layer in which friction is most important, varies depending on underlying surface roughness, surface heating, atmospheric stability, and wind speed. The Coriolis Force 1) Causes objects to deviate to the right of their direction of motion in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere 2) Affects the direction an object will move across the Earth’s surface, but has no effect on its speed 3) It is strongest for fast-moving objects and zero for stationary objects 4) is zero at the equator and maximum at the poles Hydrostatic Balance: When pressure gradient force going upward is balanced by the downward force of gravity Geostrophic Balance The balance between the pressure gradient force and the Coriolis Force is this...
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