This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Need to Know Sheets Chapters 1-6 Bio 310 Chapter 1 Understand what makes carbon so special – - Carbon is special because it has capability to form four bonds with four other constituents. - Can form single bonds with carbon, hydrogen, or double with Nitrogen and Oxygen. - Most significant is carbon – carbon bonds. (amino acids)- Only four other atoms have the ability to form 3 or more bonds. They are Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P), Silicon (Si) and Boron (B). Understand bonds and bond rotation, or the restrictions on rotation: how do bonds dictate the function of molecules- Double and triple carbon bonds are shorter and more rigid. (fatty acids) Memorize functional groups – they will occur many times in the book and an understanding of them is critical to understanding the functions of molecules, the structure of Biomolecules, and the function of enzymes Understand the differences between conformation and configuration, especially in isomers; what a chiral molecules etc- Sterioisomers- Molecules having the same bonds, and bond order, but have different spatial arrangements. - Conformation- the free rotation around a single bond. The same molecule can have many spatial arrangements. o Staggered and eclipsed staggered is most favorable for bulky substituents. - Configuration- It is a fixed arrangement of atoms, in which different spatial arrangements can only be achieved by breaking and reforming bonds. Examples are double bond configurations (cis and trans) or chiral carbons – carbons with four different substituents, and are optically active (R or S). o different configurations can alter physical properties, and chemical reactivities o Cis/Trans Example: in retinal tissue there is rapid changing from cis to trans of rhodopsin to opsin respectively. This is the basis for our vision. o R/S R is clockwise S is counterclockwise Priority depends on atomic number • O(16) > N(14) > C(12) > H (1) R/D rotate plane polarized light to the right, S/L rotate light to the left Enatiomers- mirror images that are non-superimposable. (like right and left hand) • They have similar chemical properties but different physical properties. • They are very specific in nature. There are only D-surgars and L-amino acids. Diasteriomers- are non-mirror images. If a molecule has 2 chiral centers- it has 4 different configurations. 2 that are enantiomers and 2 diasteriomers. Know how the three dimensional structure can be analyzed (you do NOT need to know how the techniques work exactly); but know how they are applied, what the limitations are, what is specific for what technique- Steriochemistry is very important in biochemistry because the interactions with protein and ligand bindings, enzymes and substrate etc. are very specific and need to have the right conformation/configuration in order to work....
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 10/11/2008 for the course BIOLCHEM 310 taught by Professor Jakob during the Spring '07 term at University of Michigan.
- Spring '07