APUSH Chapters 17-18 (and Review!).docx

APUSH Chapters 17-18 (and Review!).docx - Chapter 17...

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Chapter 17: Essential Questions 1. The Populist Party emerged into the political sphere in the early 1890s as an evolution of the Farmer’s Alliance, the largest citizen’s movement of the nineteenth century, which attempted to improve rural conditions by cooperative financing and marketing of crops. Unlike the Alliance, the Populist Party aimed to speak for “all producing classes,” spreading their message through pamphlets, newspapers, and traveling speakers. The party envisioned America as a commonwealth of small producers whose freedom rested on ownership of productive property and respect for the dignity of labor. While continuing to embrace modern technologies, they promoted the idea that America should be run in a business-like manner to promote the public good. The party united white and black small farmers for the first time, and put forth a list of proposals that were mostly adopted within the next half-century, including direct election of US senators, government-controlled currency, graduated income tax, low-cost public financing for farmers wishing to market crops, and the right to form labor unions. 2. The failure of Populism introduced a new racial order into the South. “Redeemers” sought to free the South from “black rule,” undoing as much as possible of Reconstruction (slashing state budgets, reducing taxes, closing public facilities, cutting funding for schools, etc.). New laws authorized arrest of any person without employment and increased punishment for minor crimes. The few workers’ unions in the South excluded blacks for the most part, forming barriers to their economic advancement. Northern employers refused to hire blacks, preferring white migrants or European immigrants instead. Southern states began enacting laws and constitutions that limited the African-American vote through devices like poll taxes and literacy tests. Finally, in 1890, local laws and customs made segregation legal on differnt levels in the United States. From the Civl Rights Cases to Plessy v. Ferguson , “seperate but equal” quickly became the motto of biracial relationships in the South. Segregation became “an all- encompassing system of white domination, in which each component-- disenfranchisement, unequal economic status, (and) inferior education-- reinforced the others” (Foner 694). 3. The racial restrictions addressed in the answer above applied to non-white immigrants as well, not just blacks. The Immigration Restriction League rose to power at this time, a group founded in 1894 by Boston professionals that barred illiterate from entering the United States and leading to border conflicts of people trying to get into the land of opportunity. People began having difficulties in the the modern age with border disputes. Laws like the Chinese Exclusion Act targeted specific groups of immigrants across the United States. Women ironically experienced more opportunities than ever before. By now, every state granted women the right to control their own wages and property, as well as the
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right to sign or create seperate contracts or wills from their husbands. A new
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