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physical anthro test 3 - Fossils the preserved remnants of...

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Fossils- the preserved remnants of once-living things, often buried in the ground Paleontology- the study of extinct organisms, based on their fossilized remains Geology-the study of the Earth Strata- layers of rock Principle of original horizontality- layers of rock are laid down parallel to the earth’s gravitational field Principle of superposition- with all other factors equal, older layers are laid down first then covered by younger (overlying) layers. (oldest sediments on bottom) Principle of cross-cutting relationships- geoplogical feature must exist before another feature can cut across or through it and that the thing that is cut is older than the thing cutting it Principle of faunal succession- deeper fauna is older but also that there are predictable sequences of fauna through strata, that successive layers contain certain types of faunal communities and types of fossils that follow one another in predictable patterns through the strata (index fossils) Provenience- the origin or original source (as of a fossil) Relative dating techniques- dating techniques that establish the age of a fossil only in comparison to other materials found above and below it Calibrated relative dating techniques- techniques that can be created to an absolute chronology Chronometric dating techniques- techniques that estimate the age of an object in absolute terms through the use of natural clock such as radioactive decay or tree ring growth Prognathic face- projection of the face well in front of the braincase Postorbital bar- a bony ring encircling the lateral side of the eye but not forming a complete cup around the eye globe Diastema- gap between anterior teeth
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