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Unformatted text preview: Canada College Engineering Department ENGR 261 Lab Report 07/Apr/2008 Experiment #4 Operational Amplifiers By Tam, Wilson Chi-Hang (G00621273) Experiment #4 : Operational Amplifiers Introduction to lab : Operational Amplifiers (op-amp) are an electronic unit that behaves like a voltage-controlled voltage source (VCVS). It can also be used in making a voltage or current controlled current source. An op-amp can sum signals, amplify a signal, integrate it, and or differentiate it. The op-amp is an electronic device consisting of a complex arrangement of resistors, transistors, capacitors, and diodes. The ability of the op amp to perform these mathematical operations is the reason it is called an operational amplifier. The op-amp that we will be using in this lab is the 741 op-amp. Op-amps are popular in practical circuit designs because they are versatile, inexpensive, easy to use, and fun to work with. We have approached the op-amp in lecture by using an ideal op-amp then later we will be using the non-ideal op-amp in the lab. Using nodal analysis as a tool, we consider ideal op-amp circuits such as the inverter, voltage follower, summer, and difference amplifier. Purpose and Objective : This lab we are to investigate some properties of practical high-gain amplifiers to see whether it behaves like what it is specified on the lab manual such as the inverting amplifier, the non-inverting amplifier, the voltage summing amplifier, the voltage difference amplifier, the basic integrating op-amp, the basic op-amp differentiator, and the voltage-to-current converter. This lab we are to gain experience in using operational amplifiers in circuit design with circuit elements such as resistors, voltage sources, current sources, and capacitors to determine its output to see whether it behaves as it should be specified by the lab manual. Theory : We are to investigate whether op-amp behaves as it is supposed to be. The properties of such amplifiers are stated in the textbook, but we are to verify its accuracy. We will be experimenting with seven op-amp circuit designs and each design is to function as it is intended to be. Some characteristics of the op-amp circuits that we will be analyzing in this lab with equations solved: the inverting amplifier: to amplify the input voltage 10 times and inverted the signal to negative at its output terminal, the non-inverting op-amp amplifier is to amplify the input voltage 11 times and to keep the output voltage to remain the same polarity, the voltage summing amplifier is to take two different input voltages and produce an output that is the weighted sum of the input so the value will be source the negative of the first voltage source plus the second voltage source, the voltage difference amplifier is to take the difference of the two input voltage, the basic integrating op-amp is proportional to the integral of the input signal, the differentiator op-amp is whose output is proportional to the rate of change of the signal input, and the voltage-to-current convert is to convert the input voltage. input voltage....
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