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Unformatted text preview: Gina Balhorn PSY101 Prologue: The Story of Psychology Psychologys Roots Objective 1: Define psychology. Psychology = the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Behavior = anything an organism does any action we can record Mental Processes = the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs and feelings Psychology as a science: psychology evaluates competing ideas with careful observation and rigorous analysis. o Less a set of findings than a way of asking and answering questions o Theories Theory worksdata supports predictions(the more data and predictions) the better the theory Predictions failtheory is rejected or revised Objective 2: Prescientific Psychology. India: Buddha pondered how sensations and perceptions combine to form ideas China: Confucius stressed power of ideas and an educated mind Israel: Hebrew scholars anticipated todays psychology by linking mind and emotion to body Ancient Greece: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle o Socrates and Plato Derived principles by logic Theories- Mind is separable from body- Continues after body dies- Knowledge is innateborn within us o Aristotle Derived principles from careful observations Theory: Knowledge is not preexisting; Grows from experiences stored in memories France: Ren Descartes o Agreed with Socrates and Plato on mind being entirely distinct from body and able to survive death o Conjectured how immaterial mind and physical body communicate o Dissected animals Concluded: Fluid in brains cavities contained animal spirits that flowed from brain through nerves (which Descartes thought were hollow) to muscles, provoking movement. Memories formed as experiences opened pores in the brain, into which the animal spirits also flowed Britain: Francis Bacon and John Locke o Francis Bacon Became one of the founders of modern science Fascinated by human mind and its failings About our minds hunger to perceive patterns in random events, Bacon said, the human Gina Balhorn PSY101 understanding, from its peculiar nature, easily supposes a greater degree of order and equality in things than it really finds Foresaw research findings on noticing/remembering events that confirm beliefs, All superstition is much the samein all deluded believers observe events which are fulfilled, but neglect and pass over their failure, though it be much more common. o John Locke...
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- Spring '08