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spcm 1500 Chapter 1

spcm 1500 Chapter 1 - Communication apprehension is the...

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Communication apprehension is the extent to which people exhibit anxiety about speaking to others. Types of Communication Intrapersonal Interpersonal Small group Organizational Mass Public Communication Models Linear Model (Mechanistic Thinking) o Communication takes place in a context, or environment in which the message is sent. The physical context is the tangible environment in which communication occurs. The cultural context refers to the rules, roles, norms, and patterns of communication that are unique to particular cultures. The social-emotional context is associated with the nature of the relationship that affects a communication encounter. The historical context refers to how messages are understood in relationship to previously sent messages. Interactional Model (Feedback) o Characterized primarily by feedback, which can be defined as responses to people, their messages, or both. Internal feedback occurs when you assess your own communication. External feedback is feedback you receive from other people. Transactional Model (Shared Meaning) o The field of experience refers to a person’s culture, past experiences, personal history, and heredity, and how these elements influence the communication process. Noise Anything that interferes with the message Physical noise (external noise) o Any stimuli that makes the message difficult to hear. Physiological noise o Biological influences on message reception. Psychological noise (internal noise) o Communicator’s biases, prejudices, and feelings toward a person or message. Semantic noise o When senders and receivers apply different meanings to the same message. Context is the environment in which a message is sent. Physical Context – tangible environment
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Cultural Context – Rules, roles, norms, and patterns of unique cultures Social-emotional context – Nature of the relationship Historical Context – relationship to previously sent messages Impersonal vs. Interpersonal Communication Relational history pertains to the prior relationship experiences two people share. Relational rules indicate what the people in the relationship expect and allow when they talk to each other. Relational uniqueness pertains to how communicators frame their relationship and compare it to others. Interpersonal Communication is the process of message transaction between people to create and sustain shared meaning. Process means that interpersonal communication is an ongoing, unending vibrant activity that is always changing. Message exchange means that the transaction of verbal and nonverbal messages is sent simultaneously between two people. Meaning is what people extract from a message. Self-actualization
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spcm 1500 Chapter 1 - Communication apprehension is the...

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