Unformatted text preview: Europe Supported By Africa and America, by William Blake (1796) Latin American Cultures Prof: Kathe Managan 10/01/08 Administrative Notes This week’s readings on Race and Ethnicity are on Moodle Next week’s readings will be on Moodle by this afternoon (there will only be 2-3) The DVD of Rue Cases Nègres is on reserve (call number RX14) – also available at French and Francophone Studies center Today’s Class: Goals Race, ethnicity and national identity in Latin America and the Caribbean Haiti - color, politics, history and “creole” identity Ecuador - mestizaje and indigenous and AfroEcuadorian identities Belize - ethnic identity, colonial influence and contemporary aesthetics Meaning of “race”: Anthropological Perspective
Sociocultural construct, not relate to biological reality Racial categories differ from society to society, even within societies at times, and are not stable over time What racial categories describe often has much to do with things other than race (e.g., socioeconomic class, behavior, dress and ideologies developed around them) History of term “race”
Overview: 16th century: rare - indicated lineage 19th century: race as biological type scientific racism 20th century: race as social construct genetic variation not linked to “race” Race and Colonialism First phase of colonialism, 1450 - 1800: many argue that this is when our notions of racial types, racial difference and racial superiority/inferiority developed, as European come into contact with and began to define themselves in relation to Others (Africans, native Americans) Race and beliefs in European racial superiority were used as justifications of colonization Race and Colonial Policy In Spanish colonies, royal decrees were passed to prohibit interracial marriage Similar passed in other colonies As the “mixed race” population increased, there was an increase in legislation regulating marriage and behavior (including dress) of different “racial types” Casta paintings (18th century Mexico): http://hemi.ps.tsoa.nyu.edu/archive/studentwork/colony/olson/Casta1.htm Race in US “One drop rule” Louisiana 1983 case and 1/32nd rule Creoles in Louisiana - what does creole mean in Louisiana and (how) does it relate to notions of race? Virginia Dominguez on race in La Race in Brazil Complex system that goes well beyond “Black” vs “white” Link to article by Roth Gordon: http://www.udc.es/dep/lx/cac/aaa1998/rothblatt.h Race in Brazil Map of Haiti [ http://www.maplandia.com/hait ] Hoffman on Haiti Race, language and religion key to any conceptualization of shared identity in Haiti Because of their history, Haitians identify as Haitian first, then as black, then, if at all, as creole “creole” used to refer to all those born in French colonies (but not French Canadians) In French colonies, other terms replaced “creole” for whites (zoreilles, béké, blanc pays) There is no specific term for whites in Haiti due to its history (nèg blan) Hoffman on Haiti In most other Latin American and Caribbean societies, “creole” used to differentiate between colonists and those in Old Country, so creole identity often linked to independence and to the development of a shared, creole national identity BUT, when Haitian Revolution occurred, many slaves had just arrived, so no time for shared sense of identity to form Tension between mulatto elite (descendants of “creoles” at time of Revolution) and black populace (descendants of bossales at time of Revolution) Questions/ Comments on Hoffman while Haiti’s history is unique this tension between mulatto middle class/elite and black lower class has been common in most Caribbean islands in the immediate postcolonial period Shared, creole identity has been problematic elsewhere too, as the other readings indicate His last comments are a bit odd/racist Your comments/questions Map of Belize [ http://www.lonelyplanet.com/ma ] note that Bonner worked in Dangriga Bonner on Belize Bourdieu on social distinction, aesthetics and habitus Habitus: habits and dispositions that we acquire, reflective of social structure In Bourdieu’s view, taste and aesthetics are part of our habitus and are related to our positioning in social structure Bonner pp. 122-123 Dominant Views on Race, Ethnicity and Aesthetics in Belize Complex ethnic/racial composition - national image presented as multicultural and multiracial Garifuna/Garinagu/Black Caribs, Creole, Spanish Creoles, Spanish (Mayan not very salient local category) BUT: influence of British colonial aesthetics - tripartite set of group stereotypes: British, Spanish, African focus on phenotype but also cultural habits (to slave away in sun associated with negative colonial views on Africans, no matter what race or ethnicity of person) Light skin = high status, no matter ethnicity Opposition Aesthetics in Belize Resistance to hegemony Valuing of “roots”, “original” - not just African ancestry, but all who take part in certain practices seen as “roots” and linked to nature and traditional Ambiguous, but increase value of rots because of Black Power and Rastafarianism, also because roots/Garifuna people have acquired power and status New Hybridity in Belize Hybrid forms valued (hybrid cuisine, hybrid fashion) Bonner argues that hybrid ≠ mixed, as in new homogenous mixture, but as both, in a playful and desirable way - new mixtures only have meaning because of the separate identities that they draw on (don’t break down boundaries) Comments/Questions on Bonner I think this article presents an area that is little known and very complex, challenges assumptions about “Latin America” Your comments and questions For next class (Mon, Oct 6) Will finish discussion of race and ethnicity Will watch film on racial classification in Dominican Republic and Haiti Start readings on music and performance Those writing research papers should have an initial topic narrowed down - will discuss next week Remember also upcoming midterm - go over notes and pick out key terms and concepts, think about any questions you have ...
View Full Document
- Fall '08
- Ethnic group, Miscegenation