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Unformatted text preview: Latin American Cultures
Prof: Kathe Managan 10/01/08 Administrative Notes This week's readings on Race and Ethnicity are on Moodle The DVD of Rue Cases Ngres is on reserve (call number RX14) also available at French and Francophone Studies center Today's Class: Goals Any questions/comments on last lecture? Race and ethnicity - history of terms Meaning of "race": Anthropological Perspective
Sociocultural construct, not relate to biological reality Racial categories differ from society to society, even within societies at times, and are not stable over time What racial categories describe often has much to do with things other than race (e.g., socioeconomic class, behavior, dress and ideologies developed around them) History of term "race"
Overview: 16th century: rare - indicated lineage 19th century: race as biological type scientific racism 20th century: race as social construct genetic variation not linked to "race" Race in 16th - 18th centuries rare Indicated lineage (descendants of common ancestor share common qualities) - Biblical associations Connected to notion that environment influenced character and physical appearance (Larmakian theories of evolution Some concept of European superiority - e.g., social evolution (Spencer) Race and Colonialism First phase of colonialism, 1450 - 1800: many argue that this is when our notions of racial types, racial difference and racial superiority/inferiority developed, as European come into contact with and began to define themselves in relation to Others (Africans, native Americans) Race and beliefs in European racial superiority were used as justifications of colonization QuickTimeTM and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Europe Supported By Africa and America, by William Blake (1796) Race and Colonial Policy In Spanish colonies, royal decrees were passed to prohibit interracial marriage Similar passed in other colonies As the "mixed race" population increased, there was an increase in legislation regulating marriage and behavior (including dress) of different "racial types" Casta paintings (18th century Mexico): http://hemi.ps.tsoa.nyu.edu/archive/studentwork/colo Race in 19th century Race comes to be seen as permanent separable types with innate qualities passed on from generation to generation Natural differences of lineages come to be seen as biological differences of hierarchically ordered "races" Scientific racism Context: Abolition of slavery - seems a contradiction, but slavery abolished in part because seen as unsuitable for modern industrial society (think back to Mintz) and scientific racism continued to be used to justify oppression Rise of imperialism - in Asia, Africa and Pacific Race in 20th Century Eugenics But also Darwinian theories of evolution and Mendellian genetics dismantle scientific racism Most natural and social scientists view race as a social construct (something with no biological, innate basis) Race as a social construct what does this mean? Racial categories, like "black" and "white" do not refer to the same thing everywhere Constructed on notions of phenotypical variation (usually, as opposed to cultural variation) assumed to be associated with ranked social categories of persons What gets noticed, what used to signify difference varies, related to colonial encounters Not always really about phenotype Although "races' are social constructs, not mean "race" is unimportant (self-identification, effects of racism) Ethnicity "the sense and expression of `collective, intergenerational cultural continuity' i.e., the sensing and expressing of links to `one's own kind (one's own people), to collectivities that not only have historical depth, but, more crucially, share putative ancestral origins and, therefore, the gifts and responsibilities, rights and obligations deriving therefrom." (Fishman 1985:330) Ethnicity - History of term From Greek "ethnos," people or nation "ethnic" used like "racial" With the waning of scientific racism, "ethnic group" became common term "ethnicity" came into academic usage after Second World War Used mainly for minorities Should "ethnicity" replace "race" as terms of analysis? Ethnicity often thought to describe cultural differences as opposed to biological ones Wade sees ethnicity as defining place, geographic origin BUT, in practice, race and ethnicity can overlap Wade argues for keeping both and noting how each used in context Race in US "One drop rule" Louisiana 1983 case and 1/32nd rule Creoles in Louisiana - what does creole mean in Louisiana and (how) does it relate to notions of race? Virginia Dominguez on race in La For next class (Fri, Oct 3) Readings on race and ethnicity - will discuss Bonner, Hoffman and Whitten Will discuss racial classification in Caribbean and Latin American, including mestizaje and indigenismo Each student should bring in one question for discussion ...
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- Fall '08