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Week 5 Part III

Week 5 Part III - NOTES WEEK 5 PART 3 Early Cities Urban...

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NOTES WEEK 5 PART 3: Early Cities & Urban Development I. Pre-Columbian Urban Development A. Urbanization 1. Criteria a. population 1) several thousand to 100,000+ b. ceremonial centers 1) monumental architecture 1) often served as nuclei for ancient cities 2) spatial organization (a) astronomical planning c. social stratification 1) tri-level social pyramid a) elites (1) often rulers with claims of divinity (2) nobility (3) religious specialists (4) long distance traders (a) “nobility by fantasy” b) middle sectors (1) merchants (2) artisans (3) skilled workers c) laborers (1) urban (2) rural peasantry (3) slaves B. Urbanism in Mesoamerica 1. Classic period (AD ca 300-900) a. Teotihuancán 1. all hallmarks of ancient urbanism 2. collapsed by AD 800 a) multi-causal demise most likely (1) warfare?, internal conflict? (2) environmental stress? (3) agricultural decline? 1
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b. Maya Lowlands 1. important centers a) Tikal b) Copán c) Chichen Itza 2. most hallmarks of ancient urbanism a) it is debated whether “true” urbanism achieved in Maya Lowlands b) Maya anomaly – former consensus 1) lacked true urbanism (a) big sites religious centers 2) lacked intensive agriculture 3) lacked long distance trade 4) lacked warfare c) new consensus 1) most of above disproved c. Central Mexico 1. Tula a) urban center of Toltecs b) AD 1000-1200 2. Tenochtitlán a) Aztec capital b) city of 100,000-200,000 population c) chinampa system 1) raised fields in shallow lakes of Basin 2) highly productive C. Central Andes & Pacific Coast of South America 1. pre-Classic or Formative a. proto-urbanization on Peruvian coast 2. Intermediate ca AD 300-900 a. urbanization on Peruvian coast 1) Moche – north coast 2) Nazca – south coast 3) Huari (Wari) – central highlands 3. Late Developmental a. Peruvian coast 1) Chimu a) Chan Chan – AD 1200 (1) population of ca 100,000 2
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4. Cuzco & Other Inca Cities
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