Week 5 Part III

Week 5 Part III - NOTES WEEK 5 PART 3: Early Cities &...

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NOTES WEEK 5 PART 3: Early Cities & Urban Development I. Pre-Columbian Urban Development A. Urbanization 1. Criteria a. population 1) several thousand to 100,000+ b. ceremonial centers 1) monumental architecture 1) often served as nuclei for ancient cities 2) spatial organization (a) astronomical planning c. social stratification 1) tri-level social pyramid a) elites (1) often rulers with claims of divinity (2) nobility (3) religious specialists (4) long distance traders (a) “nobility by fantasy” b) middle sectors ( 1 ) m e r c h a n t s (2) artisans (3) skilled workers c) laborers ( 1 ) u r b a n (2) rural peasantry ( 3 ) s l a v e s B. Urbanism in Mesoamerica 1. Classic period (AD ca 300-900) a. Teotihuancán 1. all hallmarks of ancient urbanism 2. collapsed by AD 800 a) multi-causal demise most likely (1) warfare?, internal conflict? (2) environmental stress? (3) agricultural decline? 1
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. M a y a L o w l a n d s 1. important centers a ) T i k a l b ) C o p á n c ) C h i c h e n I t z a 2. most hallmarks of ancient urbanism a) it is debated whether “true” urbanism a c h i e v e d i n M a y a L o w l a n d s b) Maya anomaly – former consensus 1 ) l a c k e d t r u e u r b a n i s m (a) big sites religious centers 2) lacked intensive agriculture 3) lacked long distance trade 4) lacked warfare c) new consensus 1) most of above disproved c. Central Mexico 1 . T u l a a) urban center of Toltecs b) AD 1000-1200 2. Tenochtitlán a) Aztec capital b) city of 100,000-200,000 population c) chinampa system 1) raised fields in shallow lakes of Basin 2) highly productive C. Central Andes & Pacific Coast of South America 1. pre-Classic or Formative a. proto-urbanization on Peruvian coast 2. Intermediate ca AD 300-900 a. urbanization on Peruvian coast 1) Moche – north coast 2) Nazca – south coast
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Week 5 Part III - NOTES WEEK 5 PART 3: Early Cities &...

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