Lec-10-Chap-07-2P - Lecture 10 Electron Configuration and...

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1 Lecture 10 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table Beyond the Bohr Model: The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom 7.4 Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels, and Orbitals 7.5 Shapes of Atomic Orbitals 7.6 Atom Electron Configurations (I) 7.7 Lecture 10, Knowledge and Skills • Know about and work with the wave nature of moving matter • Know the meaning of the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle • Know and work with Schrödinger’s wave mechanical model of the hydrogen atom (and other atoms) • Know the meaning of the term “electron orbital” • Know the quantum numbers, n, l, m l , m s • Significance of quantum numbers • Know the shapes of orbitals: s, p, d • Know about the internal structure of orbitals (nodes) • Know the relative orbital energies • Know the Pauli exclusion principle • Know Hund’s rule • Determine the electron configuration of many-electron atoms Beyond the Bohr Model: Quantum Mechanics De Broglie (1924): All moving moving objects act as waves ± = h mv ± = wavelength (m) h = Planck’s constant (J s) m = mass (kg) v = velocity (m s -1 ) For photon: Einstein: E = mc 2 (m = mass of a photon) Planck: E = h ± = hc/ ² >> mc 2 = hc/ ² >> ² = h/mc Electrons move in atoms as standing waves Beyond the Bohr Model: Quantum Mechanics Schrödinger (1926): Treats e - as standing waves Developed by analogy to classical equations for the motion of vibrations Called “wave mechanics” or “quantum mechanics” The solutions provide energies and wave functions wave functions ( ³ ), which are characterized by quantum numbers.
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