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Consumer Behavior Study Guide for Exam 3

Consumer Behavior Study Guide for Exam 3 - CONSUMER...

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CONSUMER BEHAVIOR STUDY QUESTIONS Part 3 LEARNING (FINISH READINGS) 1. What are operant and classical/respondent conditioning? How do they differ from one another? - Association: associate one thing with another - Proximity: close in time or space between two things; the more likely consumers will learn the association - Repetition: the more often the pair appears together; the more people will associate the two things together - Consistency: the more the two appear in conjunction; the more people will associate the two - Operant Conditioning - Deals with behaviors which are usually assumed to be under conscious control of the individual - Conditioned by consequences which occur AFTER the behavior - Occurs when the probability that an individual will emit one or more behaviors is altered by changing the events or consequences which follow the particular behavior - Some events or consequences increase or decrease the frequency of a given behavior through positive or negative reinforcement (positive/negative rewards) - Three main concepts for classical/operant conditioning - Reinforcement schedules - Continuous schedule - Fixed ratio - Variable ratio - Shaping - Involves process of arranging conditions which change the probabilities of certain behaviors in order to increase the probabilities of other behaviors - Because it is based on already existing response hierarchy, probability of desired behavior is small - Marketing implication: Loss leaders and special deals are used as rewards for individuals coming into the store (probability of person buying other full-priced items are bigger then when they were not in the store) - Discriminative stimuli - The mere presence or absence of a stimulus can serve to change the probabilities of behavior - Marketing implication: Store signs/logos/brand marks are good examples; based on previous experiences, purchase behavior will be rewarded when the distinctive symbol is present and not rewarded when the symbol is absent - From Handout: - Rewards/punishments (positive/negative) - Schedules of RI - Punishments (positive/negative) - Drive state - Extinction - Distinctive cues - Shaping - Simplicity of response
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- Respondent/classical conditioning: - Class of behaviors which are under control of stimuli that precede them; not susceptible to conscious control - Process through which a previously neutral stimulus, by being paired with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to elicit a response very similar to the response originally elicited by the unconditioned stimulus - Particular stimulus can come to evoke positive, negative, or neutral feelings - Marketing implications: Determines a wide variety of objects or events which a person will work to obtain, avoid, or be indifferent to - Directs attention to the presentation of stimuli which, due to previous conditioning, elicit certain feelings in the potential consumer - In some cases, marketer may find it useful to actually condition responses to stimuli - The benefits which can be gained by employing the principles of R.C
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