chapter 1 notes - Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with...

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Chapter 1:  Thinking Critically with Psychological Science THE NEED FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize  observations and imply testable hypotheses. Hindsight Bias We tend to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it  The “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon Overconfidence We tend to think we know more than we do Critical Thinking Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions o Examines assumptions o Discerns hidden values o Evaluates evidence Theory An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts  observations Hypothesis A testable prediction Often implied by a theory Operational Definition A statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables Example:
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o Intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
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chapter 1 notes - Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with...

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